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Concept.png Canada/Military 
(Armed Forces)Rdf-entity.pngRdf-icon.png
Subpage(s)Canada/Military/Chief of the Defence Staff
The military of Canada

The armed forces of Canada consists, as of 2023, of approximately 68,000 active personnel and 27,000 reserve personnel, with a sub-component of approximately 5,000 Canadian Rangers.[1], with a budget of US$26.4 billion[2]

Even though the U.S. is the only nation that could realistically invade Canada, the Canadian military is almost 100% integrated with US forces. All Chief of the Defence Staff has been vetted or trained by the U.S. Armed Forces, and agreements allow U.S. forces to enter Canada at will. There might also be other secret arrangements signed by Canadian governments.[3]

In a process started in after the coup against Diefenbaker in the 1960s, RCMP Chief Superintendent Joe Oliver, the Mounties’ director general for border integrity, explained how Canadian security forces had been integrated with "baby steps" after September 11, 2001:

We recognized early that this approach would raise concerns about sovereignty, of privacy, and civil liberties of Canadians. We said ‘Let’s take baby steps, let’s start with two agencies to test the concept, let’s demonstrate to Canadians and Americans that such an approach might work.” These “baby steps” are taken on a regular basis to keep Canadians unaware of the extent to which successive Liberal and Conservative governments have placed Canada under U.S. command.[4]

Psychological warfare

The Canadian military deployed an propaganda campaign against its own citizens in April of 2020 using techniques similar to those employed during the Afghanistan war, with the goal of "shaping" and "exploiting" information. The federal government allegedly never asked for the campaign, nor did cabinet authorize the initiative by the Canadian Joint Operations Command, then headed by Lt.-Gen. Mike Rouleau.[5]

A separate initiative, not linked to the CJOC plan, but overseen by Canadian Forces intelligence officers, culled information from public social media accounts in Ontario.[5]

Integration with US forces

The concept of interoperability has dictated the appointment of the most senior commanders of the Canadian Forces. Since 2000, there has not been one Chief of Staff who has not been vetted or trained by the U.S. Armed Forces.[3]

Through NORAD the US Commander of the alliance has de facto control over a number of military installations in Canada.

An unequal agreement pushed through in December 2002 following 9/11 allows U.S. troops to enter Canada in response to a "threat, attack or civil emergency" concerning critical infrastructure or to protect "potential targets" such as nuclear power plants or oil and gas pipelines. Further, agreements under the NATO Status of Forces Agreement (SOFA) and the Visiting Warships Act grant immunity to American and foreign military personnel from prosecution in Canada.[3]

Secret discussions were held in 2013 to "fully integrate military forces" of the U.S. and Canada. The meetings for a "Canada-U.S. Integrated forces program' were "led at the highest levels, with then Chief of the Defence Staff Gen. Tom Lawson and the chairman of the U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff, Gen. Martin Dempsey (now retired), meeting on ‘several occasions’ to hash out a plan that included an option for ‘fully integrated forces.’'" CBC reported, "The planning was deliberate and sustained, and it happened at the highest levels of both forces." Ostensibly, "efforts were ultimately shut down and refocused on improving interoperability between the forces."[6]