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|( 1800s: ) 1803|
- February 21 – Edward Despard and six others are hanged and beheaded for plotting to assassinate King George III of the United Kingdom, and to destroy the Bank of England.
- February 24 – Marbury v. Madison: The Supreme Court of the United States establishes the principle of judicial review.
- April 30 – The Louisiana Purchase is made from France by the United States.
- May 18 – The Napoleonic Wars begins, when the United Kingdom declares war on France after France refuses to withdraw from Dutch territory.
- July 5 – The convention of Artlenburg leads to the French occupation of Hanover (which had been ruled by the British king).
- July 23 – Robert Emmet's uprising in Ireland begins.
- September 20 – Irish rebel Robert Emmet is executed.
- October 14 – Orissa, an area of India along the Bay of Bengal that now comprises the Indian state of Odisha, is occupied by the British under the British East India Company, after the Second Anglo-Maratha War. The Maratha Empire formally cedes the area in the Treaty of Deogaon, signed on December 17.
- October 20 – The Senate ratifies the Louisiana Purchase Treaty, doubling the size of the United States.
- November 18 – Battle of Vertières: The Haitian army, led by Jean-Jacques Dessalines, defeats the army of Napoleon.
- November 30 – The Balmis Expedition starts in Spain, with the aim of vaccinating millions against smallpox in Spanish America and the Philippines.
- December 9 – The proposed Twelfth Amendment to the United States Constitution, requiring that electoral ballots distinctly list the choice for president and the choice for vice president, is approved by Congress for submission to the states for ratification; passed in the wake of the problems in the 1800 presidential election, the amendment is ratified by 13 of the 17 states and is proclaimed in effect on September 25, 1804.
- December 20 – The Louisiana Purchase is completed as the French prefect, de Laussat, formally transfers ownership of land between the Mississippi River and the Rocky Mountains to the United States, by way of commissioners William C. C. Claiborne and James Wilkinson. Claiborne is appointed as the area's first American governor.
- Chandan Kumar Sadangi and Sanjay Mohapatra, Change Management for Organizations: Lessons from Political Upheaval in India (Emerald Group Publishing, 2017) p x
- Lieutenant-Colonel H. F. Murland, Baillie-Ki-Paltan: Being a History of the 2nd Battalion, Madras Pioneers 1759–1930 (Andrews UK Ltd., 2012) p122
- The Constitution of the United States of America, As Amended, ed. by Jack Brooks (U. S. House of Representatives, 1992) pp15-16
- Charles Etienne and Arthur Gayarré, History of Louisiana: The American Domination (Pelican Publishing, 1972)
- C. A. Goodrich, History of the United States (Huntington and Hopkins, 1823) p306