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|( 1880s: ) 1884|
German Chancellor Bismarck leads the partitioning of Africa like a cake (contemporary cartoon)
- April 20 – Pope Leo XIII publishes the encyclical Humanum genus, denouncing Freemasonry and certain liberal beliefs which he considers to be associated with it.
- April 22
- A German protectorate is established over South-West Africa.
- May 1 – The eight-hour workday is first proclaimed by the Federation of Organized Trades and Labor Unions in the United States. This date, called May Day or Labour Day, becomes a holiday recognized in almost every industrialized country.
- May 16 - Sweden's Finance Minister Robert Themptander becomes his country's Prime Minister (1884–88).
- June 28 – The Norwegian Association for Women's Rights is founded.
- July 1 – First International Forestry Exhibition opens in Edinburgh, Scotland.
- July 3 – The Dow Jones Transportation Average, consisting of eleven transportation-related companies (nine railroads and two non-rail companies, Western Union and Pacific Mail), is created. The index is the oldest stock index still in use.
- July 5 – Germany takes possession of Togoland.
- July 7 – Nagasaki Shipyard, as predecessor of an aircraft and shipbuilding manufacturing brand in Japan, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries was founded in Kyushu Island.
- July 14 – German administration is established in Cameroon.
- August 22 – The Sino-French War (for control of Tonkin) breaks out (continues to April 1885).
- August 23 – Sino-French War – Battle of Fuzhou: French Admiral Amédée Courbet's Far East Squadron virtually destroys China's Fujian Fleet.
- September 15 – The invention of local anesthesia by Karl Koller is made public, at a medical congress in Heidelberg, Germany.
- October 22 - The International Meridian Conference in Washington, D.C. fixes the Greenwich meridian as the world's prime meridian.
- November 2 – Timișoara, Romania is the first town in Europe with streets illuminated by electric light.
- November 4 – 1884 United States presidential election: Democratic Governor of New York Grover Cleveland defeats Republican James G. Blaine in a very close contest, to win the first of his non-consecutive terms.
- November 15 – The Berlin Conference, which regulates European colonisation and trade in Africa, begins (ends February 26, 1885).
- December 1 - Porfirio Díaz (1830-1915) returns as President of Mexico, an office he will hold until 1911.
- December 4 – Reformers in Korea who admire the Meiji Restoration in Japan stage the Gapsin Coup, with Japan's help. China intervenes to rescue the king, and help suppress the rebels.
- December 10 - The Third Reform Act widens the adult male electorate in the United Kingdom to around 60%.
- December 16 – The World Cotton Centennial world's fair opens in New Orleans.
- The first Christian missionary arrives in Korea.
- Police training schools are established in every prefecture in Japan.
- Parliamentarism is introduced in Norway.
- The water hyacinth is introduced in the United States, and quickly becomes an invasive species.
- An economic depression hits the United States.
- The Fredrika Bremer Association is founded in Sweden.
- Thomas Parker built a practical production electric car in Wolverhampton using his own specially designed high-capacity rechargeable batteries.
|Berlin Conference||15 November 1884||26 February 1885|
|Ferris State University||Public||Michigan university|
|Bangor University||Welsh University with economic problems|
|Temple University||Public (formerly private)State-relatedMulti-campusInternational||Large Philadelphia university|
|Fabian Society||According to itself, it aims to promote greater equality of power, wealth and opportunity, the value of collective action and public service, an accountable, tolerant and active democracy, citizenship, liberty and human rights, sustainable development, multilateral international cooperation|
|Alibi Club||a 50-member private, traditional club in Washington, D.C. ts members comprise of the Washington elite, including presidents, senators, among other prominent figures.|
|American Historical Association|
|Title||Born||Died||Place of death||Summary|
|William Hunt||12 June 1823||27 February 1884||Saint Petersburg|