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Chris Busby/Research on The Health Risks of Radiation

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Chris Busby's research suggest that establishment scientific models, which are admittedly old, may underestimate the risks of low level exposure to ionising radiation by several orders of magnitude. This page is largely by Busby himself.
Chris Busby began investigating the effects of internal radiation though an examination of what he described as the "Wales Cancer laboratory". He argued in 1992 that since the population of Wales had been exposed to three times the internal radionuclide exposure than England (owing to higher rainfall) and official data showed this, then there should have been an increase in cancer. He investigated the official cancer data and soon discovered that although cancer rates had been fairly similar for England and Wales, after 1984, 20 years after the major atmospheric tests fallout occurred, there began a remarkable divergence, with the Welsh age standardised cancer incidence rising steeply to about 30% more than the English incidence. In particular, there was a four-fold increase in bone cancer, a definite flag for strontium-90, a major component of the fallout. The trend in bone cancer in Wales lined up with the trend in Sr-90 lagged by 20 years. The error in the ICRP model defined by this was a 300-fold. Wales Green Party published these results and his interpretation in a book in 1992 which was translated into Welsh. The book, which has become a collector’s item, was desktopped with dot-matrix typeface from a BBC 64K computer and printed on a small offset litho printing press which Busby salvaged from a printer in North Wales and which started him off on his printing phase. This ended with Sir James Goldsmith funding a state of the art Ryobi A3 offset litho machine in 1998. By 1994, Busby had determined that the cancer epidemic (which at the time was being denied or explained away as due to an ageing population) was the direct result of the fallout exposures and he published his theory about the weapons fallout origin of the cancer epidemic in a letter to the British Medical Journal[1]. The Wales Cancer Registry, whose data had shown the high bone cancer rates, later stated that it was an error, there were no bone cancers, and the rates were normal. Pressure from North Wales County Councils (where cancer rates were highest) forced the Wales Cancer Registry to meet with him, the Medical Officer of Health for Wales Deidre Hine and colleagues in Cardiff and agree to provide data. In the event, small area data for the whole of Wales was provided on two floppy discs and within three weeks the Wales Cancer Registry was closed. Deidre Hine was retired at the same time. Busby wrote this up in a second book, "Radiation and Cancer in Wales" published by Green Audit in 1994.

Busby obtained financial support in 1994 from the Joseph Rowntree Charitable Trust to write these conclusions about weapons fallout and the origin of the cancer epidemic, and other issues about radiation into a larger book, Wings of Death which was published in 1996 and is still in print [2].

Nuclear Power Stations

Cancer and Leukemia near the Irish Sea

After the closure in 1996 of the Wales Cancer Registry, cancer data was collected at the Welsh Office by the Statistics Division. Busby approached them and asked for a duplicate copy of the small area data, leaked by the WCR in 1995, in order to be sure that the original data were correct, and to obtain an extra year’s data for 1990. The ultimate dataset covered all the small areas of Wales and cancer incidence by sex and 5-year age group from 1974-1989 WCR and 1974-1990 Welsh Office statistics division. The files were copied and lodged with a solicitor. Busby was not able to fully investigate the Wales Cancer Registry small area data for two years as Molly’s PC was not powerful enough and there was no money to buy a good one. Following a meeting in the Irish Republic in 1997 Busby was commissioned by the Irish State in connection with a Court Case against British Nuclear Fuels to examine the Welsh Cancer registry data to see if any health effects existed on the coast of Wales as a result of the contamination of the coast with radionuclides from Sellafield. At the time Ireland had no national cancer registry and no data covering the period of major releases from the plant which peaked in the 1974-89 period covered by the WCR data. With a more powerful PC and the assistance of students from a web café in Aberystwyth Busby set about examining and making sense of the huge database which ran to 4.2 million entries. The full story of what was there was told in his 2007 book Wolves of Water [3] but as the evidence that Sellafield contamination was causing a significant excess of child cancer and a 30% increase in adult cancers along the north Wales coast emerged piece by piece in the media after 1999 Busby came under attack from just about everyone in the establishment.

The sequence of events was:

  1. Busby found high levels of bone cancer in the Welsh Cancer Registry official published data and also drew attention in books and in the British Medical Journal to the link between Welsh cancer and the cancer epidemic, blaming both on the atmospheric weapons tests fallout. To get this into the media he organised direct actions at Trawsfynydd Nuclear Power Station.
  2. Busby was given the small area data, possibly leaked it since this data had been refused at the meeting that occurred with the Medical Officer of Health Deidre Hine
  3. Dr Hine was replaced as MoH
  4. Wales Cancer Registry denied any increase in bone cancer and stated that it was an error
  5. Wales Cancer Registry was dissolved and its personnel (Dr Mary Cotter, Mr Reg Fitzpatrick) sacked
  6. A gap in cancer data collection was filled by the Statistics Division of the Welsh Office
  7. A new agency, the Wales Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit (WCISU) was set up and funded. Its leader was Dr John Steward.

The first piece of evidence to emerge from the WCR data was a excess of child leukemia and brain tumours on the north Wales coast where the Sellafield contamination was greatest. This was presented as a documentary by BBC Wales (John Fraser Williams) in 1998. The results were immediately attacked by the Director of the WCISU, John Steward, who stated that there were no excess child leukemias. This was followed by attacks on Busby by the (1) Welsh Office and (2) COMARE, the Committee on Medical Aspects of Radiation in the Environment. In following up this issue and examining Steward’s paper Busby discovered that the new WCISU had removed 18% of all child leukemias in Wales from the old WCR database. The location of these children was never revealed, but would have been easily enough to account for the excess numbers near the north Wales coast. By 2003, Busby had been approached by HTV whose reporter had a friend who was sick with lymphoma and had located a number of children with leukemia and brain tumours living near the north Wales coast. An analysis of these children showed that there was almost a 20-fold excess of child leukemia and also brain tumours along the contaminated Menai Strait. A paper was published and a presentation made at the 2004 Children with Leukemia conference in London. [4][5]. A second TV documentary was made about the cancer in the children. This was also attacked by Steward and WCISU in a paper published by his own department but released to the media and sent to COMARE, but since the names of the children were available he could not dispute the numbers of cases [6]. Instead he disputed the base population and wrote that Busby had made an elementary error in the populations at risk .This was followed as usual by attacks on Busby from COMARE, the Welsh Assembly and from the nuclear industry. Busby investigated the numbers and found that it was Steward who had made the error. Busby formally complained to the Royal College of Physicians which investigated the issue and found Busby to be correct. Steward had to apologise for his errors and COMARE also had to admit the error. Busby and Vyvyan Howard published an account of Steward's error in the base populations in the Journal of Public Health [7]. Nevertheless, Steward later wrote another paper in the Journal of Radiological Protection denying that there had been an excess of child leukemia on the north Wales coast [8] This journal’s editor was the head of epidemiology for British Nuclear Fuels Sellafield, Richard Wakeford and he pitched in with his own editorial. In this paper Steward omitted any reference to his errors on the base population analysis or to any previous publications showing this. This affair was the basis for the attacks made on Busby on the internet site “junksciencewatch: chrisbusbyexposed" which has recently been taken down. Busby belived that Richad Wakeford was behind this site writing under the pseudonym Richard D. Steward was discussed in Busby’s article on Scientific Dishonesty [9] and in Busby’s presentation at the Royal Society [10] on the issue.

In addition to the increases in child cancer, Busby’s analysis of the Irish Sea, using the WCR data from 1974-90 showed a highly significant excess risk of all cancers defined by a sharp increase in rates very close to the sea. Busby ascribed this to inhalation of radioactive particles resuspended from contaminated sediment by sea to land transfer. The results are presented and discussed in a book, funded by the Joseph Rowntree Charitable Trust in 2007, Wolves of Water [3]. The question of the north Wales cancers was used by George Monbiot in his attacks on Busby in 2011. Monbiot based his attacks on Stewards’s paper in the Journal of Radiological Protection and failed to look more closely despite being advised by Busby to do so.

Small Area Questionnaire Studies

Following the developments in the 1990s whereby cancer data was made confidential by the registries, Busby developed a particular kind of house to house survey method for examining cancer rates in small areas. This was first carried out by locals in the area in the Irish Republic near Carlingford in County Louth to examine the effects of the Sellafield contamination on coastal communities[11]. It was followed up by studies in Burnham on Sea downwind of Hinkley Point (see above) and in Llan Ffestiniog downwind of Trawsfynydd power station[12]. It was also carried out near Plymouth dockyard in collaboration with the group CANSAR[13]. Busby was asked to present the method at a conference in Chicago in 2008[14] and also in Geneva in 2012. The most famous example of this method is, of course, the Fallujah study in 2010[15]. The method is presented and discussed in Wolves of Water.

Nuclear Power Station Cancer Studies

Following his acquisition from the Office for National Statistics and from the Scottish ISD of mortality data by cause for small areas of England, Wales and Scotland in 1999, Busby began looking at cancer in small areas and computer assisted developed methods to do such studies quickly. In particular he developed a Java program which could compare data from any ward with national data to give social class and age standardised cancer risk ratios. Between 2000 and 2009 the method was applied to three areas near nuclear plants, Somerset (Hinkley Point nuclear power station), Essex (Bradwell NPP) and Oldbury (Gloucester, Monmouth and Avon). Results all showed that breast cancer increased close to the muddy estuaries contaminated by releases form the power stations.

Other studies using the small area mortality data examined cancer in Scotland and work by his PhD student in Liverpool University John Newby resulted in a new epidemiological index being defined to examine the trend in onset of cancer with age[16]. Busby also looked at cancer mortality near the Padeswood cement plant near Mold as part of evidence to a public enquiry.

Hinkley Point

Busby pictured with the Hinkley Point nuclear power station in background

The initial study which is reported also in his book Wings of Death was commissioned by the local anti-nuclear Group Stop Hinkley. Results showed the sea coast effect and also a doubling of breast cancer mortality in the coastal town of Burnham on Sea, downwind of the plant[17][18][19]. This mortality excess remained throughout the period to 2011 as the work was updated. A further study of the same are found an excess of infant mortality as well as the breast cancer[20]. Busby also designed an analysed an epidemiological questionnaire which was carried out by a local group in Burnham on Sea, Parents Concerned about Hinkley. Results confirmed the 2-fold excess breast cancer risk and also identified excess leukemia risks in the area[21].

In 2010 Busby analysed environmental data to show that the area around the plant was contaminated with enriched uranium[22].

Trawsfynydd

Busby has studied leukemia and other cancer near the Trawsfynydd nuclear plant in Meirionydd since 1993[23] Working with the Welsh language ITV company S4C Busby carried out a questionnaire survey of two small towns downwind from the Trawsfynydd nuclear power station in Meirionnydd. Results which were made part of a documentary[24] showed a significantly high level of breast cancer in the downwinders[12].

Bradwell

Following the media attention to the Hinkley point mortality study, Busby was asked to look at the areas near Oldbury and Berkeley NPS on the Severn Estuary and also by a citizen group on Mersea to examine cancer near the Bradwell NPS in Essex. The Oldbury study was inconclusive, though the sea coast effect on cancer remained below the Severn Bridge and in the Avon estuary wards[25]. The Bradwell study showed a significant doubling of breast cancer risk in the wards adjacent to the muddy estuary of the Blackwater into which Bradwell released its effluent[26]. The initial study was followed up by a study commissioned by Essex health authority[27]. The government sponsored Small Area Health Statistics Unit carried out a study for £30,000 and found that Busby was wrong and had made some mistakes. Further investigation showed that this was true but that SAHSU had also made mistakes[28][29] A reanalysis by both found that Busby’s original conclusion held and that SAHSU had omitted key wards to produce an incorrect result. This Bradwell study was to have been a key study carried out by the CERRIE committee but once it became clear that the breast cancer coastal effect was real, the Chair shut down the project.

Baltic Sea and HELCOM

On the shores of the Baltic Sea 2009
The most radioactive sea in the world

In 2009 Busby was invited to Sweden by the Swedish anti-nuclear organisation to advise on the proposals to develop and high level nuclear waste repository at the Forsmark site on the Baltic. When he learned that the Baltic sea was more radioactively contaminated than the Irish Sea he decided to try and investigate the effects that this might be having on cancer rates near the Baltic. Together with Ditta Rietuma [30][31] he visited the Swedish Cancer Registry in Stockholm and the Finnish Cancer registry in Helsinki, but neither would release small area data for research. They had discussions in Helsinki with HELCOM [32] and obtained all the data on radioactive contamination of the Baltic. The Director of the Finnish registry, Timo Hakulinen told him that there was indeed an excess risk of cancer near the coast of Finland but they were unable to explain this. Using published county data Busby was able to show that there was a coastal effect on Breast cancer in Sweden and he presented these findings in a meeting in Riga, Latvia in 2009 [31]. The results were attacked by a new group, “nuclear power yes please" based in Sweden. Busby and Rietuma wrote a letter of complaint to the Swedish Justice Minister which they delivered on Busby’s Kawasaki W650 motorcycle which he had ridden from Wales to Riga the previous year [33]. This event was lampooned by the pro-nuclear energy group in a spoof Movie Poster: Easy Rider, Alarmist Edition [34]. Busby obtained funding for initial work on the issue and began collaboration with Prof Olle Johansson at the Karolinska institute in 2010 to apply for an EU Grant to study the cancer near the Baltic sea, but this was turned down.

Forsmark Nuclear Waste Repository

Busby was commissioned in 2012 by MILKAS, the independent Swedish nuclear waste organisation[35] to critically examine the environmental impact reports published by the company proposing to build a radioactive waste repository at Forsmark under the Baltic sea [36]. Busby’s report [37] presented to the environmental Court, argued that the entire environmental impact calculations were wrong since the radiation risk model employed Commission on Radiological Protection, ICRP, which was unsafe for the kinds of internal exposures that would result from the releases from the repository.

Additionally Busby calculated that the sealed canisters would explode due to helium released by the decay of alpha emitters within the 100,000 year period required by the Swedish environmental court and indeed probably within 1000 years [38]. This matter is still unresolved. He pointed out that the release of the waste would make the Baltic area uninhabitable since it equated to several thousand Chernobyl accidents worth of radioactivity.

Fukushima Daiichi

Following the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster, Busby was invited to visit Fukushima in connection with a court case to evacuate the children. He took radiation measuring equipment and quickly established that the levels of contamination existed as far away as Tokyo [39]. He established a television and internet presence from the very beginning. Appearing on BBC [40], ITV [41] and Russia Today [42][43][44][45][46][47][48] he pointed out from the start that the catastrophe was comparable if not worse than the Chernobyl accident [40][41][42][43][44][45][46][47][48] and the health effects would be worse since the local population density was much greater. In his comparison with Chernobyl and the severity of the disaster, he was later shown to be correct [49]. He wrote a number of scientific articles about the Fukushima catastrophe including one [50] where he employed the risk model of the European Committee on Radiation Risk, which he had helped to develop [51]. His prediction of the cancer yield in the 200km radius was between 200,000 and 400,000 extra cancers depending on initial assumptions [52]. In his later TV interviews for RT he discussed the risks of ionizing radiation and the Japanese Government's handling of the disaster [42][43][44][45][46][47][48]. He pointed out that the only way to accurately discover the health problems induced by the radiation would be to carry out epidemiological questionnaires and he designed such a questionnaire which was translated into Japanese. However, so far no one has organised carrying out the survey. [53]. After Fukushima Busby developed a new method to assess airborne kadioisotope contamination by analysing vehicle engine air filters, a procedure he first used in the Lebanon in 2006/2007 after the Israeli incursion and which he advised UNEP to use in the Kosovo in 2001. From analysis of vehicle filters he was able to show [39] that significant airborne radioactive contamination had occurred in Tokyo. He presented measurements of high levels of radioactivity in an air conditioning filter in an apartment in central; Tokyo [54][55] and was able to show that enriched uranium and lead-210 were present in the airborne releases.

At the 4th International Conference of the ECRR jointly held in Berlin in May 2011 with the German Society for Radiation protection he presented calculations based on the ECRR risk model to the effect that there would be approximately 300,000 extra cancers in the 200km zone around Fukushima as a result of the releases. He also drew attention to the effects of radionuclide contamination on heart disease, particularly in children [56][57] His analysis of the Fukushima disaster and the likely health effects was published as a book in the Japanese language in 2012 [58].

Busby also advised that calcium and magnesium supplements would help mitigate the genetic damage cause by the internal ingested radionuclides strontium-90, uranium-238 and uranium-235 released by the accident. A Japanese company marketed tablets based on Busby’s advice. This led to attacks (hotlink Frank) on Busby suggesting that he was making money out of the project despite the fact that Busby had stated[59] that though he was pleased that someone was taking his advice, he had not received anything from the Japanese company and was never connected with the marketing of the supplements. The issue of the radiation protection supplements was followed up by the Guardian and employed in the article by George Monbiot attacking Busby[60]. Monbiot whose conversion to nuclear energy had been derided by Busby[61] was lampooned by Busby in a song he wrote and performed called Newspaper Man[62].

Chernobyl

In 2000 Busby and Scott Cato published a paper in the journal Energy and Environment in which the increases in infant leukemia which had been reported from Greece, Germany USA and Scotland together with data from Wales could be shown to demonstrate a statistically significant 400-fold error in the predictions of the ICRP model [63][64]. This error was for children who could have no alternative possible cause for their leukemia since they were chosen on the basis of being in the womb at the time of the Chernobyl contamination. It was the unequivocal falsification of the ICRP model by this finding which was a major reason for Michael Meacher founding the CERRIE committee. In the event the Chernobyl infants evidence was dishonestly handled in the main CERRIE report in an appendix largely written by Richard Wakeford of BNFL.

The consideration of this issue by CERRIE resulted at least in new data being supplied by the Childhood Cancer Research Group, and this data was included in a meta analysis of the issue by Busby published in 2009 in the International Journal of Environment and Public Health [65]. This may be seen to be the ultimate destruction of the ICRP risk model and it has not been addressed by ICRP or any of the other Radiation Riske groups (BEIR, UNSCEAR).

Busby was invited to Kiev for the World Health Organisation conference in 2001 to report on the issue of the infant leukemias. His trip, partly financed by the Joseph Rowntree Charitable Trust was assisted by the Ukrainian Green Party and involved living on a riverboat on the Dnipr. He can be seen in the Swiss videofilm of the conference Atomic Lies/Nuclear Controversies where he stops the conference to change the final conference motion (which had been created by UNSCEAR’s Norman Gentner to state that "no further consideration of the effects of Chernobyl were necessary as there were none"). Busby was elected to the Association: Physicians of Chernobyl.

Busby was invited also in 2001 by the Belarussian Ambassador to give a paper at the conference in London of the British and Irish Charity organisations on Mitigating the Consequences in Belarus of the Chernobyl Catastrophe [66] . Busby based his estimation on his earlier analysis of the atmospheric nuclear test fallout in Wales and England. Based on a ICRP collective effective dose for persons living in Strict Controlled Zones of contaminated territories of Ukraine and Belarus Busby predicted between 6500 and 18,000 extra cancers in the lifetime of those exposed [66].

The effects of the Chernobyl exposures were discussed in CERRIE but the committee did not consider it necessary to include any of the Russian Language papers abstracted for it by Busby and Alexey Yablokov. There were however included in the CERRIE Minority report. After CERRIE Busby and Alexey Yablokov edited an ECRR book Chernobyl 20-Years On [67] which was the first major review of the Russian Language peer review evidence of the real harm caused by the radionuclides. It was updated and reprinted in 2009. Busby is a member of the Ukraine Association of Physicians of Chernobyl.

Depleted Uranium

Full article: Depleted Uranium
Testing for radiation levels in the Iraqi desert 2009

Busby has been an active investigator of the health risks associated with so-called 'Depleted Uranium' and has developed the Second Event Theory that ingestion or inhalation of uranium nanoparticles greatly amplifies exposure background radiation. Since 1998 he has appeared as an expert witness in over 40 court cases in the UK and the USA. In 2009 (?) he was expert witness in a landmark case where a coroner’s jury found on the basis of his evidence that Gulf veteran Stuart Dyson had developed colon cancer as a result of exposure to DU in Gulf War 1. [13][68][69][70]

Iraq and DUOB

Busby was appointed in 2002 to the Depleted Uranium Oversight Board[71], after having been invited to present evidence to the Royal Society Depleted Uranium Committee (www.duob.org) in 2001. Busby made two points to the Royal Society. The first was that the exposures to uranium nanoparticles could not be safely assessed using the ICRP risk model, which was based on high dose external acute gamma radiation of Japanese A-Bomb victims. The second was that DU particles travelled long distances and could be inhaled. This was based on his visit in 2001 to Kosovo with Nippon TV and alpha detecting measuring equipment. DU was found in samples and analysed in the UK by David Assinder at the University of Bangor. These results showed that DU particles were resuspended in sunlight and rained out with precipitation. His advice was excluded from the final RS report. He advised UNEP that air filter measurements would show DU and later UNEP reported this was found to be the case. Later in 2006, with Saoirse Morgan he analysed data from the high volume air samplers at the Atomic Weapons Establishment Aldermaston, UK which indicated that uranium from Gulf War 2 arrived in the UK [72]. This made the media [73] and was not denied by the military. The movement of DU over large distance was also supported by measurements made in Hungary at the time of the Balkans conflict [74].

Whilst on the DUOB Busby helped to ensure that the methods employed for measuring DU in urine of veterans was made as safe as possible from bias. However, results showed that the existence of enriched uranium in the environment made the whole project unsafe, and Busby with two colleagues on the DUOB authored a dissenting report which was published with the main report. This main report including the analysis made by Busby et al was rapidly taken off the internet by the Ministry of Defence. However, Busby and colleagues obtained title to the site www.duob.org and put the report back up. The site now has the report and also the minutes of the meetings of the DUOB.

In 2002 Busby was invited to formally advise the US Congressional Committee on Veterans Affairs and Security about the health effects of uranium weapons. The meeting was held at the House of Lords in London. He was later appointed as an expert witness to advise the Canadian Parliament on the health effects of uranium exposure.

Following the developments which occurred in the science of uranium and health after 2001, evidence that showed that the conclusions of the RS committee were unsafe, Busby emailed the Chair of the Royal Society committee Brian Spratt asking him to reconvene the committee. However Spratt did not reply.

The use of Depleted Uranium in the 1991 Gulf War was followed by reports of increased incidence of cancer, leukemia and birth defects in population near the areas where Depleted Uranium was deployed. Busby was engaged from the beginning in this issue and argued from 1997 that the cause of Gulf War syndrome was exposure to Depleted Uranium. Membership of the DUOB enabled him to obtain data from urine measurements of troops deployed in the second Gulf War. These results showed high levels of undepleted or possible slightly enriched uranium. After reports that the US had banned the IAEA from Iraq following the 2003 Gulf War, and the reports of unusual types of injuries in areas where missiles have been used, Busby concluded that due to the fact that technological advances had permitted DU detection from the uranium isotope ratio, the US were now using natural uranium. Busby made several presentations on the issue of the health effects of Depleted Uranium in a number of European venues and collaborated with Iraqi doctors and scientists to obtain information e.g.[75][76][77][78]. He was invited in 2000 by Al Jazeera to spend some time in Iraq with radiation equipment, to visit hospitals and the cancer registry and to contribute to two documentaries in Arabic.

Lebanon and Gaza

Following a report in an Arab language Lebanese newspaper of high radiation levels in a missile crater in Khiam, South Lebanon, Busby collaborated with Dai Williams, a weapons researcher, to obtain samples from the crater. These samples were analysed by two separate laboratories using two different techniques and showed enriched uranium [79][80]. One lab, that of David Assinder in Bangor was closed down by the University shortly after these results became public. Busby concluded that some new weapon had been developed and was being tested in Lebanon by the Israelis. Following the major Israeli operation in Gaza, Busby contacted Al Jazeera and made arrangements to visit Gaza through Egypt and obtain samples from weapons craters. The samples obtained showed slightly enriched uranium [81].

Fallujah

Between 2009 and 2013 Busby collaborated with Malak Hamdan and paediatricians in Fallujah to investigate the levels of cancer and birth defects in that city, which had been subject to major attacks by US led forces in 2004. Busby began by employing a questionnaire epidemiology study of a type he had designed and piloted in Ireland in 2000 and later employed near nuclear sites in the UK (see below)[3] . Results showed enormously high levels of cancer and leukemia compared with similar control populations in Egypt. The relative risk of leukemia in the under 34 yr was 38-fold (3800 percent) which Busby reported on TV was higher than the rates after Hiroshima and higher than any rate in any population ever studied. An alteration in the sex ratio of children born after 2004 was also found. A paper was published in the International Journal of Environment and Public Health [15] and received significant media attention [82][83]. Busby then obtained uranium measurements on hair samples from the mothers and fathers of the children with congenital malformations. Results showed unusually high levels of metals including uranium in the hair. The issue was followed up by studies of levels of Uranium along the length of single long strands of hair from selected mothers with long hair. The uranium in the hair and in soil samples was slightly enriched. The full report concluded that a new weapons system had been deployed, probably the same one as was used in The Lebanon; a paper was published in the peer review journal Conflict and Health [84] and received media attention. The rates of congenital malformation were reported also in a paper published in 2012. All these papers were rejected by The Lancet in one case without being even sent to a reviewer. All the journals which published these papers were attacked, in one case (IJERPH) before the paper left Busby’s computer. The congenital malformation rates were published by the Journal of the Islamic Medic al Association of North America [85].

Nuclear Weapons Tests

Nuclear Test Veteran Children

In Kuala Lumpur speaking at Criminalise War 2009 Event

In 2007 Busby suggested to the British Nuclear test Veterans Association that they collaborate with him of a study of the health of their children and grandchildren. This was agreed and a case control questionnaire study was designed along the lines of a previous study carried out with the Porton Down Veterans. Results showed a highly significant excess of congenital disease in the veterans children compared with controls and also with national data. Levels of congenital disease in the children of veterans was 9-fold 900%) higher than expected and interestingly, the effects persisted in the grandchildren who showed an 8-fold excess risk [86]. The results were presented at a meeting of the Cross Party Parliamentary Committee in Test Veterans at the House of Commons (ref). Busby included these results in his Test veteran expert witness reports but was told by Tribunal Judges that it was not admissable as evidence of effects in the Veterans. A paper is being prepared for publication in a peer review journal.

Nuclear Test Veterans Pensions Appeals Tribunals

In 2005 Busby began to appear as expert witness in Pensions Appeals Tribunals (PAT) for nuclear tests veterans who had developed cancer or for their widows. These cases were always won on appeal following his evidence to the tribunal judges. In 2008 he was contacted by Rosenblatts, the London solicitors who were taking a case in the high court on the issue of the British nuclear test veterans (Christmas Island, Maralinga, Australia) and he agreed to act as an expert witness for this case. Rosenblatts gave him access to all; the information they had and with this and with other reports he obtained through Freedom of Information requests produced a report on the issue of the health consequences for the veterans. Later he acted for several other pensions appeals, all of which were successful. Following these successes, the UK Treasury Solicitor tried to have him excluded on the basis that he was not a real expert, but this move failed. By the end of 2011 Busby had managed to obtain enough information from redacted official secrets documents (detected under Freedom of Information Act requests and ordered to be released by the judge Hugh Stubbs) to have a solid case against the Ministry of Defence. This was based on the following main issues:

  1. The exposure was from alpha emitters, mainly uranium, the main component of the bombs and tests, and these exposures were not detectable with the equipment used to protect the troops. The defence assertion that the veterans doses were low was demonstrably wrong.
  2. The Christmas Island bomb itself rained fallout over the whole area because the upper winds were in the opposite direction to the lower winds
  3. The main Grapple Y bomb was made of fissile uranium and may not have been a true fusion weapon; for this reason its high yield was not predicted and its altitude of detonation was too low causing seawater to be sucked up into the cloud and rained out on the troops. A secret contemporary photograph and new released contemporary meteorological data showed this to be the case.
  4. The MoD asserted that there was no radon dose on Christmas Island yet coral islands absorb radium and uranium from sea water and so there would have been a significant radon dose; in addition New Zealand measurements detected high levels of radium and uranium on the island.
  5. The MoD case was based on the ICRP risk model which had been shown to be unsafe.

However, this evidence never appeared in the court since Busby was removed as an expert witness following Roseblatts dropping the case suddenly at the end of 2011 and a new solicitors Hogan Lovells International suddenly taking the case, delaying it by a year. Busby was removed three weeks before the case was heard without consulting the 16 individual appellants who had retained Busby. Busby reported this in a video presentation from Latvia in 2013 [87] and put all his reports and the FoI documents on the internet [88][89].

Porton Down Veterans

Busby carried out a case control health study of the Porton Down Veterans Support Group members in 2007. Porton Down experimental station in Wiltshire had been employed in military research on the effects of war gases including nerve gases. Young national servicemen were recruited for these experiments and told they were being used for common cold research. The results showed there were significant health effects in this group[90]. Shortly after this study was published the group received £3 million compensation from the government. The report is being prepared for a submission to a peer reviewed journal.

Other Radiation Exposures

Uranium Mining

In Tanzania creating a rope to let the Geiger Counter down the drill hole

Busby has been commissioned to provide expert reports and inputs to the issue of uranium mining and its health effects. He has provided reports as a parliamentary expert witness to the Canadian parliament and also was commissioned to analyse the environmental impact of an open cast mine project in Saskatchewan [91][92]. He was invited to speak on the issue in Pretoria South Africa and toured the mine tailing sites there in 2010. He also toured Tanzania for a group funded by the World Council of Churches, speaking (partly in Swahili which he remembered from his Kenya childhood) in local villages in the wilds of nowhere visited by land cruiser and also in Dar es Salaam.

Mobile phones and Non-ionising Radiation

Busby has carried out laboratory research into the health effects on non-ionising radiation since 1998 when he was supported by the Foundation for Children with Leukemia to start investigating the interaction between ionising and non-ionising radiation. Busby’s thesis is that it is the interaction between the electromagnetic field of non-ionising radiation and the fast charged particle tracks caused by ionising radiation that result in adding energy from the EM field to the particle tracks resulting in an augmentation of conventional ionizing radiation dose. Experiments carried out with X-rays, electromagnetic fields and ferrous sulphate dosimeters at the University of Ulster were ambivalent but did show that an effect occurred, though in the wrong direction. Busby argues that even if a tiny fraction of the energy of the EM field were transferred to the electron tracks, the effect on dose could be enormous. Busby started a collaboration with Prof Olle Johansson at the Karolinska to discuss ways in which these researches could be funded, but immediately Prof Johansson lost all his funding and also his laboratory. Sweden is highly dependent on cellphone sales through the Swedish company Sony Ericsson.

From 2009 Busby also managed to stop several cellphone transmitters being built in USA and the UK by threatening to carry out epidemiological research before and after the switching on of the base station [93][94].

Busby is currently expert witness in a case in South Africa involving non-ionising high voltage power line radiation.

Theoretical Developments

Busby has developed some novel theories to explain the damage of radiation and uranium nanoparticles. His ideas are contested by several figures in the nuclear power industry, public safety regulatory bodies and the academic establishment.

Uranium and Photoelectrons

Busby pointed out at the CERRIE International Workshop in St Catherines College Oxford in 2004 that Uranium, by virtue of its high atomic number Z = 92, would preferentially absorb gamma radiation from natural background and from local gamma decays and would re-emit the energy as photoelectrons. He suggested that this may be a reason for the anomalous radiotoxicity of uranium nanoparticles formed in weapons use and therefore explained the high levels of cancer and birth defects reported from Iraq. By 2005 he had extended the idea to uranium in solution which he found was strongly attracted to DNA phosphate and would therefore direct secondary photoelectrons into the DNA. The idea was published in two papers in 2005 and also sent to the Royal Society journals [95][96][97][98][99][100]. The story of their dismissal was presented by Busby at the Royal Society in his 2008 lecture on scientific dishonesty]. Busby applied for a patent for the use of soluble uranium as a radiotherapy enhancing agent but this was turned down on the basis that it was not permitted under UK patent law to patent a pharmaceutical agent. In 2008 Busby collaborated with the Director of the German Federal Agricultural Laboratory, Prof Ewald Schnug, to publish a peer reviewed book chapter on the issue[101]. This was picked up by the New Scientist and reported as a major news item [102]. The experimental follow up to investigate the matter of uranium nanoparticles and solution uranium DNA effects was to have been carried out in the University of Ulster by a PhD student being partly supervised by Busby, Andreas Elsaessar. Busby was made visiting Professor in the department but slowly things went wrong. The uranium research was abandoned after the first year by Busby’s colleague and head of the department Vyvyan Howard and it turned out that Busby was never registered as Elsaessars supervisor. Elsaessars PhD was awarded but research was limited to looking at gold nanoparticles. However, early calculations by Elsaessar which were presented at two nanoparticle conferences confirmed the enhancement of uranium nanoparticles even if no further research was allowed [103][104]. Results were presented also at the ECRR conference in Lesvos Greece in 2009 [105].

Despite the Royal Society refusing to publish Busby’s ideas, following the New Scientist story, pressure came to bear on the Radiation protection agencies (HPA) resulting in two papers being published addressing Busby’s ideas [106][107]. Both involved misleading calculations which purported to show that although there was indeed an enhancement of dose due to secondary photoelectrons near uranium particles, the enhancement was lower than Busby predicted. This effect was created by the basis of the calculation which employed a fixed volume into which the photoelectron energy was diluted. In the case of the Pattison et al paper [106] this resulted in the absurd prediction that the enhancement would increase with the particle size. Busby discussed these papers in a separate report where he employs the Elsaessar calculations to obtain ionisation density near the nanoparticles [98]. Busby wrote to the Royal Society editor who had refused to publish Busby’s original paper and asked for space to return to the issue. He was refused space.

No one has investigated the enhancement effect of solution uranium (Uranyl) on DNA damage by X-rays or background gamma radiation despite it being an obvious and potentially simple experiment that was suggested by Busby at the 2010 MELODI conference in Paris.

The secondary photoelectron effect also predicts phantom radiotoxicity for all high atomic number elements, Lead, Bismuth, Platinum. It explains the radiotherapeutic effects of Platinum DNA binding agents (cisplatin). It predicts the evolutionary levels of all elements in man which follow the inverse fourth power law predicted by the SET and it explains why no high atomic elements are employed by living systems. A paper on this issue was rejected by Nature without being sent for review.

The SET is capable of explaining the anomalous radiotoxicity of uranium and the matter was reviewed in an article commissioned by the United Nations in 2009[107].

The radiotoxic effects of uranium, including conclusions drawn from the secondary photoelectron amplification effects were discussed by the ECRR Uranium sub-committee and reviewed in a ECRR publication edited by Busby in 2010 [108] and which is a free download from the www.euradcom.org site [109]

Second Event Theory (SET)

From 1987 onwards Busby has worked on the health effects of ionizing radiation, developing first the 'Second Event Theory' SET and since 2003 the 'Secondary Photoelectron Effect Theory'. The Scientific Secretary of the International Commission of Radiological Protection Dr Jack Valentin, has called the SET Theory “brilliant but wrong". The SET distinguishes between hazards from external radiation and internal irradiation from ingested radioisotopes, upon which Busby claims the widely accepted linear no-threshold (LNT) model substantially underestimates the risk of low level radiation (the LNT model is largely constructed from the 1958 to 2001 'Life Span Study' of the 120,321 Japanese Atomic Bomb Survivors (hibakusha (被爆者?)) who were exposed to a powerful external burst of neutron and gamma radiation).

Busby began in 1992 by examining evidence in cancer statistics that the differential increase in cancer in Wales and England which began in the late 1970s was caused by the atmospheric nuclear testing fallout, principally strontium-90. He pointed to Wales Cancer Registry statistics which showed significantly high levels of bone cancer in Wales following the higher levels of strontium-90, a known bone-seeker. He made the suggestion in the British Medical Journal in 1994 [110] that the fallout had caused increases in cancer in Wales. Busby obtained funding from the Joseph Rowntree Charitable Trust in 1994 to write and publish a book about this research. In this book “Wings of Death—Nuclear Pollution and Human Health" (1995) he laid out this argument and backed it by reference his proposed the Second Event Theory (SET) in 1995, in his book Wings of Death: Nuclear Pollution and Human Health [2] claiming that isotopes which decay sequentially, emitting two or more particles in a short decay chain, have far greater genotoxic effects than predicted by the LNT model. In particular, Busby's SET predicts that the 90Sr-90Y decay chain might be some ~300 times more carcinogenic than predicted by LNT, because primary exposure to a beta particle alters a cell to the G2 Phase, in which it is highly radio-sensitive, and a second particle "hit" within a few hours is more likely to cause carcinogenesis [111].

Despite the fact that the International Journal of Radiation Biology had refused to accept Busby’s paper on SET, the theory was criticized by Cox & Edwards of the UK National Radiological Protection Board (2000 [112] who stated that if Busby's "biologically implausible" theory was correct and all irradiated cells undergo transformation to the G2 Phase, it would cause an increased risk factor of just 1.3 times and predict, on the contrary, substantial risk reduction at low doses for single emitting radioisotopes. Busby responded in the same journal [113] that Cox and Edwards had used an invalid set of assumptions to achieve their result and that the SET theory was confirmed by experimental results which he cited. He later showed evidence that cells in the critical phase that was intercepted by the SET were found to be 100-times more radiation sensitive than cells in G(0) or quiescent phase.

The Committee Examining Radiation Risks of Internal Emitters (CERRIE) report, on which Busby was one of twelve members, examined the biological plausibility of SET and commissioned an independent consultant to conduct a literature review of the effects of strontium-90, which Busby had stated to be the most relevant SET nuclide. In 2004 CERRIE rejected the SET by a 10 to 2 majority consensus (Busby and Richard Bramhall, dissented). The rejection was made for following reasons:

  • The lack of biological plausibility for the basic preconditions of the SET
  • The paucity of supporting evidence in the proponents’ reviews of the SET
  • The weakness of studies cited in support of the SET
  • The absence of supporting evidence found by the independent review commissioned by the Committee

However, Busby argued in a CERRIE Minority report with a foreword by the Evironment Minister who set up the CERRIE committee, Michael Meacher that the so-called expert Barrie Lambert, whose appointment had not been discussed in committee, had failed to examine a significant number of references showing evidence for the effect.

Dose Response

RiskDose.jpg

Busby argues that the response to radiation exposure is best described by the biphasic (bimodal) curve shown on the right. Busby claims that radiation moderately above background causes more cancer than much higher levels of radiation. This claim is based on the work of Elena Burlakova, currently Chief of the Scientific Council for Radiobiology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, who has shown that for a number of end-points the response to radiation dose is biphasic. Burlakova ascribes the biphasic behavior to a combination of invoked cell repair efficiency and an underlying supralinear response. Busby by contrast believes that the response relates to different sensitivity phases of cells in their cell cycle.[114].

The cancer risk vs. radiation level in the low-dose regime (0 to 200 mSv) for LNT and the 'Biphasic Curve' promoted by Busby. Background radiation is ~2.4 mSv/year (diagram adapted by Busby from Burlakova et al. [115]

Inadequacy of The ICRP's model

At a meeting organized by the Swedish anti nuclear organization Busby discussed the issue of the failure of the current ICRP radiation risk model with Dr Jack Valentin, Scientific Secretary of the ICRP and editor of its 2007 model. He managed to force Valentin to concede on camera that the ICRP model could not be used to predict the health effects of radiation exposures [116]. Valentin also stated that since he was no longer ICRP employee he could agree that ICRP was wrong not to have examined the Chernobyl health effects [116][117][118]. After this, ICRP left Sweden, changed its personnel and went to ground in Canada.



References

  1. Busby, C. (1994), Ìncrease in Cancer in Wales Unexplained', British Medical Journal, 308: 268.
  2. a b Busby, C. C. (1995), Wings of Death: Nuclear Pollution and Human Health (Aberystwyth: Green Audit)
  3. a b c Busby Chris (2006) Wolves of Water. A Study Constructed from Atomic Radiation, Morality, Epidemiology, Science, Bias, Philosophy and Death. Aberystwyth: Green Audit
  4. Busby Chris and Bramhall Richard (2005) Is there an excess of childhood cancer in North Wales on the Menai Strait, Gwynedd? Concerns about the accuracy of analyses carried out by the Wales Cancer Intelligence Unit and those using its data. European J. Biology and Bioelectromagnetics. 1(3) 504-526
  5. Busby C, Bramhall R, Parry L. Childhood leukemia near the Menai Strait North Wales. Proceedings of ‘Children with Leukemia’ International Conference 6th–10th September 2004, London, 2004.
  6. White C, Steward J, Wade R. Childhood leukemia, brain tumours and retinoblastoma near the Menai Strait, North Wales 2000–2003; a response to a recent Green Audit Report—nuclear pollution, childhood leukemia, retinoblastoma and brain tumours in Gwynedd andAnglesey wards near the Menai Straits North Wales 2000–2003 by C. Busby PhD. Cardiff: WCISU, 2005
  7. Busby C and Howards V (2006) Fundamental errors in official epidemiological studies of environmental pollution in Wales. J Public Health (Oxf) 28(2) 177-8 http://jpubhealth.oxfordjournals.org/content/28/2/177.full.pdf
  8. Steward J et al (2008) Leukaemia incidence in Welsh children linked with low level radiation--making sense of some erroneous results published in the media. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18309193
  9. Busby C. (2011) Lost in Translation: Science Dishonesty and the Science Policy Interface. Pp 184-198 in Iraq-Silent Death. Ed--Christian Scherrer. Pulau Pinang Malaysia: University Sains Malaysia ISBN 9789838615044
  10. Dr Chris Busby at the Royal Society: Scientific Dishonesty; www.youtube.com/watch?v=dOI-wpMlq28
  11. Busby C, Rowe H (2000) Cancer Incidence in Carlingford and Greenore, County Louth: Results of the STAD/ Green Audit Questionnaire Report 2000/06 Aberystwyth: Green Audit ; also reported in Wolves of Water 2007
  12. a b Busby C. Glyn E, Griffiths A, de Messieres M. Morgan S (2006) A Survey of Cancer in the Vicinity of Trawsfynydd Nuclear Power Station. 2006/3 Aberystwyth: Green Audit.
  13. a b Busby C and Avent I (2005) Cancer near Plymouth Dockyard: results of the CANSAR epidemiological doorstep survey. Aberystwyth; Green Audit. Busby C (2009)The illness of Stuart Raymond Dyson, deceased, and his previous exposure to uranium weapons in Gulf War 1. Report on probability of causation For HM Coroner Black Country Coroners District Smethwick, W. Midlands March 2009 http://www.scribd.com/doc/111935335/43
  14. Busby C (2005) Small area cancer epidemiology For the citizen: an introduction Presentation to the citizen epidemiology conference North Western University, Illinois, 21/05/05 http://www.scribd.com/doc/111935031/14
  15. a b Busby, Chris*; Hamdan, Malak; Ariabi, Entesar. (2010) Cancer, Infant Mortality and Birth Sex-Ratio in Fallujah, Iraq 2005–2009. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 7, no. 7: 2828-2837.
  16. Newby JA, Busby CC, Howard CV and Platt MJ (2007) The cancer incidence temporality index: An index to show temporal changes in the age of onset of overall and specific cancer (England and Wales, 1971-1999) Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy 61623-630
  17. Busby C, Dorfman P, Rowe H (2000) Cancer Mortality and Proximity to Hinkley Point Nuclear Power Station in Somerset: Part I Breast Cancer. Occasional Paper 2000/2 Aberystwyth: Green Audit
  18. Busby C, Dorfman P, Rowe H (2000) Cancer Mortality and Proximity to Hinkley Point Nuclear Power Station in Somerset: Part II Prostate Cancer. Occasional Paper 2000/3 Aberystwyth: Green Audit
  19. Busby C, Dorfman P, Rowe H (2000) Cancer Mortality and Proximity to Hinkley Point Nuclear Power Station in Somerset: Part III All malignancies, lung and stomach cancer. Summary Occasional Paper 2000/4 Aberystwyth: Green Audit
  20. Busby Chris, de Messieres Mireille, Morgan Saoirse (2007) Infant and Perinatal Mortality and Stillbirths near Hinkley Point Nuclear Power Station in Somerset,1993-2005. Occasional Paper 2007/6 Aberystwyth: Green Audit (This was peer reviewed by Derek Pheby of the University of the West of England for the BBC and covered in a short TV documentary by BBC Points West)
  21. Busby Chris and Rowe Helen, Cancer In Burnham On Sea North Results Of The Pcah Questionnaire Occasional Paper 2002/5 Green Audit: Aberystwyth July 2002 http://www.llrc.org/health/subtopic/burnham.htm http://www.scribd.com/doc/111935017/12
  22. Busby Chris, Collingridge Cecily (2011) Evidence of significant enriched uranium atomic fuel contamination of the Hinkley Point proposed nuclear site in Somerset and its potential implications Occasional Paper 2011/1 Aberystwyth: Green Audit http://stophinkley.org/Health/HinkContamJan2010.pdf
  23. Busby C, (1994), 'Investigation of the Incidence of Cancer around Wylfa and Trawsfynydd Nuclear Installations, 1974-86- Welsh Office Report A-EMJ28. An appraisal for Wales Green Party', Aberystwyth: Green Audit
  24. ITV Cymru (2006) Y Byd Ar Bedwar: "Cancr Llanffestiniog" Producer E Glyn for S4C transmitted 13/06/06
  25. Busby C.C, Dorfman P, Rowe H and Kocjan B (2001), Cancer mortality and proximity to Oldbury Nuclear Power Station in Gloucestershire 1995-1999. Including all malignancies, female breast, prostate and lung cancer mortality. With an analysis of childhood leukemia incidence in ages 0-4 between 1974 to 1990 in Welsh Areas of Residence. Occasional paper 2001/6 (Aberystwyth: Green Audit)
  26. Busby C C, Bramhall R and Dorfman P (2001) Environmental risk methodology and Breast cancer mortality near Bradwell nuclear power station in Essex 1995-1999. Occasional Paper 2001/8 Aberystwyth: Green Audit
  27. PDF Breast Cancer Mortality and Proximity to Bradwell Nuclear Power ... http://www.llrc.org/health/subtopic/bradrep5.pdf Aug 28, 2002 – report, Environmental Risk Methodology and Breast Cancer Mortality near Bradwell. Nuclear Power Station in Essex 1995-1999 [Busby et al., ...
  28. Cancer mortality around the Bradwell Nuclear Power Station, Essex ...
  29. Cancer Mortality and Proximity to Bradwell Nuclear - Health ...
  30. http://www.ditta.nu
  31. a b http://youtu.be/cG7hM63Nt3U
  32. http://www.helcom.fi/
  33. http://youtu.be/_o-us0dzPJc
  34. Nuclear Power yes please
  35. http://nonuclear.se/milkas
  36. http://nonuclear.se/sv/busby20100205skb_eis
  37. Busby C (2012) Pandora’s Canister: A Preliminary examination of the Safety Assessment SR-Site for the SKB proposed KBS-3 Nuclear Waste Repository at Forsmark Sweden and associated activities relating to the disposal of spent nuclear fuel Submission to: The Swedish Land and Environmental Court, Unit 3, Nacka District Court, Case No Case M 1333-11 http://www.stralsakerhetsmyndigheten.se/Global/Slutf%C3%B6rvar/Remissvar%20-%20Clink/SSM2011-3833-39%20ForsmarkECRR_Busby.pdf%20563950_1_1.pdf
  38. http://youtu.be/nAI5IKAWhk0
  39. a b Busby Chris (2011) Radioactivity in vehicle air filters from Fukushima Part I Gamma emitting radionuclides. (Fukuspectrab4); Report 2011/14 July 2011 Aberystwyth: Green Audit
  40. a b 14.03.2011 Chris Busby talks about Fukushima on BBC News http://youtu.be/4S2qgTrqR6A
  41. a b 14.03.2011 Chris Busby talks about Fukushima on ITV News http://youtu.be/hWHY6RHdxAM
  42. a b c US Media Blackout as Fukushima Full Meltdown Accelerates; Russia Today http://youtu.be/TMnwcb-N1Ls
  43. a b c Full meltdown in full swing? Japan maximum nuclear alert ; Russia Today http://youtu.be/MognnB0g56Y
  44. a b c Busby: Can't seal Fukushima like Chernobyl - it all goes into sea ; Russia Today http://youtu.be/x-3Kf4JakWI
  45. a b c Christopher Busby: Chernobyl-like radiation found in Tokyo; Russia Today http://youtu.be/XNzDg4O9dkw
  46. a b c Busby: 400,000 to develop cancer in 200 km radius of Fukushima; Russia Today http://youtu.be/S0H-mtsdsgg
  47. a b c Busby: Fukushima reactors a raging radioactive inferno; Russia Today http://youtu.be/Vz4I5rb3_BM
  48. a b c Busby: Fukushima 'criminal event' calls for investigation; Russia Today http://youtu.be/1F0uFAWV7uc
  49. Busby Chris (2011)The events at Fukushima; (fukashimabusby2) Green Audit: Aberystwyth Wales March 16th 6pm GMT; for BBC
  50. Chris Busby (2011) The health outcome of the Fukushima catastrophe Initial analysis from risk model of the European Committee on Radiation Risk ECRR. (fukuhealthreptA) Green Audit; Occasional Paper 2011/7Aberystwyth UK, 30 March 2011; presented at the joint ECRR/ GSRP conference at the Charite Hospital Berlin, May 2011.
  51. Busby Chris (2011) European Committee on Radiation Risk First evidence of global contamination from alpha-emitting particulates from Fukushima. Elevated uranium in air filters in Hawaii and Marianas islands; (fukuparticles 2) 18 April 2011; http://www.wat.tv/video/japan-fukushima-dr-christopher-3yagd_31wod_.html
  52. Busby Chris (2011)Nuclear criticality explosions in Fukushima due to plutonium fractionation and the consequences for health; some questions from a physical chemist. (fukunuclear) Green Audit: 23 April 2011
  53. Busby Chris (2011) Health questionnaire for epidemiology study translated to Japanese. Aberystwyth: Green Audit (Japanese version busby questionnaire.doc/japanquest.doc)
  54. Dr Chris Busby: radioactivity in apartment in central Tokyo Part 1; http://youtu.be/U3YMa391qrE
  55. Dr Chris Busby: radioactivity in apartment in central Tokyo Part 2 http://youtu.be/oeS5dRkyBi0
  56. Pr Chris Busby on childrens' heart attacks in Fukushima http://youtu.be/E4Kkuo-IK-A
  57. Chris Busby(2011) Radiation exposure and heart attacks in children of Fukushima (caesiumheart) 9th September 2011; Aberystwyth: Green Audit
  58. Busby C (with Makiko I) (2012) The horror of Fukushima (Japanese language publication) Tokyo: Kodansha Publishing Corporation; now into its 3rd reprint.
  59. Prof. Chris Busby update on Supplements to block Fukushima radioactivity effects http://youtu.be/12EEeaMuEdU
  60. http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/georgemonbiot/2011/nov/22/christopher-busby-nuclear-green-party
  61. http://www.counterpunch.org/2011/06/20/what-s-the-nuclear-energy-for-george/
  62. Dr Chris Busby sings Newspaper Man http://youtu.be/hKBusvfq0eM
  63. Busby, C. C. and Cato, M. S. (2000), ‘Increases in leukemia in infants in Wales and Scotland following Chernobyl: evidence for errors in risk estimates’ Energy and Environment 11(2) 127-139
  64. Busby C.C. and Cato M.S. (2001) ‘Increases in leukemia in infants in Wales and Scotland following Chernobyl: Evidence for errors in statutory risk estimates and dose response assumptions’. International Journal of Radiation Medicine 3 (1) 23
  65. Busby C.C. (2009) Very Low Dose Fetal Exposure to Chernobyl Contamination Resulted in Increases in Infant Leukemia in Europe and Raises Questions about Current Radiation Risk Models. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.; 6(12):3105-3114. http://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/6/12/3105
  66. a b On internal irradiation and the health consequences of the Chernobyl accident Presented at the sixth conference of the British and Irish charity organisations on mitigating the consequences in Belarus of the Chernobyl catastrophe, London April 6th 2001. http://www.scribd.com/doc/111934999/11
  67. Busby C and Yablokov AV (2009) ECRR 2006. Chernobyl 20 year On. The Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident. 2nd Edition Brussels: ECRR/ Aberystwyth: Green Audit
  68. The illness of Stuart Raymond Dyson, deceased, and his previous exposure to uranium weapons in Gulf War 1. Supplementary report on probability of causation for hm coroner Black country coroners district Smethwick, w. Midlands& response to dstl report: Assessment of the possible risks to mr stuart raymond dyson from the use of depleted uranium munitions in the 1990/91 gulf war by Ron Brown Sept 2009 http://www.scribd.com/doc/111935338/44
  69. Dyson rule 43 minister response to loss of case by Ministry of Defence and response from coroner. 2010 http://www.scribd.com/doc/111935357/45
  70. Dyson rule 43letter to minister 2010 http://www.scribd.com/doc/111935370/46
  71. http://www.duob.org
  72. Busby Chris and Morgan Saoirse (2005) Routine monitoring of air filters at the Atomic Weapons Establishment Aldermaston, UK show increases in uranium from Gulf War 2 operations. European J. Biology and Bioelectromagnetics 1(4) 650-668 www.llrc.org/aldermastrept.pdf
  73. The Sunday Times; February 19, 2006. Radiation detectors in Britain recorded a fourfold increase in uranium levels in the atmosphere ... (AWE) in Aldermaston and four other stations within a 10-mile radius were obtained by Chris Busby,
  74. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11197468
  75. http://youtu.be/42hJR1fX5VU
  76. Busby C (2004) Depleted Science: the health consequences and mechanisms of exposure to fallout from Depleted Uranium weapons. In The Trojan Horses of Nuclear War Kuepker M and Kraft D eds. Hamburg: GAAA
  77. Busby C. (2011) Uranium Weapons, a Depleted Science. Pp 51-66 in Iraq-Silent Death. Ed--Christian Scherrer Pulau Pinang Malaysia: University Sains Malaysia ISBN9789838615044
  78. Busby C (2008) Depleted Uranium. Why all the fuss? United Nations Disarmament Forum Journal UNIDIR, Nov 2008
  79. http://www.independent.co.uk/voices/commentators/fisk/robert-fisk-mystery-of-israels-secret-uranium-bomb-421960.html
  80. Further Evidence of Enriched Uranium in guided weapons ... www.llrc.org/du/subtopic/ambulance.pdf
  81. Evidence of Uranium in weapons employed by the Israeli Military in ... www.ciaramc.org/ciar/pdf/Busbygazarept.pdf
  82. http://www.llrc.org/du/subtopic/lemondefalluja2011.htm
  83. Al Jazeera Interview: http://youtu.be/wCVtG4m9PZ4
  84. Alaani Samira Tafash Muhammed, Busby Christopher*, Hamdan, Malak and Blaurock-Busch Eleonore (2011) Uranium and other contaminants in hair from the parents of children with congenital anomalies in Fallujah, Iraq Conflict Health 5, 1-15
  85. Alaani S., Al-Fallouji M., Busby C. and Hamdan M.., Pilot study of congenital anomaly rates at birth in Fallujah, Iraq, 2010. Journal of the Islamic Medical Association of North America, North America, 44, aug. 2012. Available at:<http://jima.imana.org/article/view/10463>.
  86. Busby Chris, de Messieres Mireille (20070)British Nuclear Test Veterans Association/ Green Audit Child Health Study 2007 Preliminary Analysis Occasional Paper 2007/5 Aberystwyth: Green Audit http://www.llrc.org/epidemiology/subtopic/testvetrept.pdf
  87. Youtube: http://youtu.be/ll11ZXpbDKg
  88. see http://www.llrc.org
  89. see http://www.greenaudit.org
  90. Busby C, Morgan Saoirse (2006) Did chemical exposures of servicemen at porton down result in subsequent effects on their health? The 2005 Porton Down veterans support group case control study. First report. Occasional paper 2006/2 http://www.scribd.com/doc/111935224/32
  91. The Areva midwest uranium mining project, Saskachewan, Canada. Public health and ethical implications. Report 2008/1 http://www.scribd.com/doc/111935259/37
  92. Chris Busby Explains Why Uranium Is Bad For You (Part 1) http://youtu.be/42hJR1fX5VU and http://youtu.be/FfNyZ9Kryb8
  93. Health Effects of Mobile Phone Transmitter Masts and - Low Level ... http://www.llrc.org/microwave/orangesci.pdf
  94. Orange mast scuppered by £200 Citizen Epidemiology survey http://www.llrc.org/microwave/aber.htm Orange has withdrawn its application to install a mobile phone transmitter in the tower of St. Michael's church in Aberystwyth, Wales, UK.
  95. Busby CC (2005) Does uranium contamination amplify natural background radiation dose to the DNA? European J. Biology and Bioelectromagnetics. 1 (2) 120-131
  96. Busby CC (2005) Depleted Uranium Weapons, metal particles and radiation dose. European J. Biology and Bioelectromagnetics. 1(1) 82-93
  97. http://www.llrc.org/wobblyscience/subtopic/spe.htm
  98. a b Busby C (2010) Enhancement of absorbed dose from natural background gamma radiation due to photoelectron induction in uranium particles. With some comments on Pattison et al 2009 and the Royal Society. Occasional paper 2010/2 http://www.scribd.com/doc/111934926/3
  99. Busby Chris (2007) Do the biological effects of Uranium result from secondary photoelectron amplification of background radiation? Part I: Particles Paper “unsubmitted" by J Roy Soc B 2007 http://www.scribd.com/doc/113416341/48
  100. Secondary photoelectron amplification of background radiation. Part II: Phantom radiotoxicity of uranium. Paper rejected by J Roy Soc Interface after 3 referees recommended publication . See video “scientific dishonesty" 2007 http://www.scribd.com/doc/113416376/50
  101. Busby Chris and Schnug Ewald (2008) Advanced biochemical and biophysical aspects of uranium contamination. In: (Eds) De Kok, L.J. and Schnug, E. Loads and Fate of Fertilizer Derived Uranium. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden, The Netherlands, ISBN/EAN 978-90-5782-193-6.
  102. http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg19926723.800-how-war-debris-could-cause-cancer.html
  103. Elsaesser A, Busby C, McKerr G and Howard CV (2007) Nanoparticles and radiation. EMBO Conference: Nanoparticles. October 2007 Madrid.
  104. C. V. Howard, A. Elsaesser & C. Busby (2009) The biological implications of radiation induced photoelectron production, as a function of particle size and composition. International Conference; Royal Society for Chemistry NanoParticles 2009
  105. Busby C, Busby J, Rietuma D and de Messieres M—Eds (2011) Fukushima—what to expect. Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference of the European Committee on Radiation Risk May 5/6th 2009 Lesvos Greece Aberystwyth: Green Audit
  106. a b Pattison, John E.; Hugtenburg, Richard P.; Green, Stuart (2010). "Enhancement of Natural Background Gamma-radiation Dose around Uranium Micro-particles in the Human Body". Journal of the Royal Society Interface 7 (45): 603–611. doi:10.1098/rsif.2009.0300
  107. a b J. S. Eakins JS Jansen J. Th. M. and Tanner R. J. (2011) A Monte Carlo Analysis Of Possible Cell Dose Enhancement Effects By Uranium Microparticles In Photon Fields, Radiat. Prot. Dosimetry (2010) doi:10.1093/rpd/ncq398
  108. Busby C (2010) The health effects of exposure to uranium and uranium weapons. Documents of the ECRR 2010 No 2. Brussels: ECRR download free from http://www.euradcom.org
  109. Busby Chris (2009) Depleted Uranium, Why all the fuss? Disarmament Forum 3 25-33 Geneva: United Nations
  110. Busby, C. (1994), Ìncrease in Cancer in Wales Unexplained', British Medical Journal, 308: 268.
  111. Busby, C. C. (1998), ‘Enhanced mutagenicity from internal sequentially decaying beta emitters from second event effects.’ In ‘Die Wirkung niedriger Strahlendosen- im kindes-und Jugendalter, in der Medizin, Umwelt ind technik, am Arbeitsplatz’. Proceedings of International Congress of the German Society for Radiation Protection. Eds: Koehnlein W and Nussbaum R. Muenster, 28 March 1998 (Bremen: Gesellschaft fur Strahlenschutz)
  112. Edwards, A A; R Cox (2000-01). "Commentary on the Second Event Theory of Busby". International Journal of Radiation Biology 76 (1): 119–122. doi:10.1080/095530000139087. ISSN 0955-3002. PMID 10665965.
  113. Busby C.,(2000), ‘Response to Commentary on the Second Event Theory by Busby’ International Journal of Radiation Biology 76 (1) 123-125
  114. Busby C (2013) Aspects of DNA damage from internal radionuclides. In DNA Repair - New Research Directions. ED—Clark Chen. ISBN 980-953-307-746-3, Shanghai: Intechopen
  115. Burlakova EB (ed) (2000) Low doses of radiation — are they dangerous? New York: Nova Science Publishers.
  116. a b Opposing views on radiation cancer risk: Chris Busby vs Jack Valentin part 1 of 2 http://youtu.be/lgP88WTK9y8
  117. Low Level Radiation Campaign www.llrc.org/Answering George Monbiot's attacks on Professor Chris Busby in The .... This 10 min sequence on Youtube shows ICRP's Jack Valentin admitting that the ICRP ...
  118. Pr. Chris Busby, ECRR, versus Dr. Jack Valentin, ICRP, 1(2) on Vimeo vimeo.com/15382750
Chris Busby's research suggest that establishment scientific models, which are admittedly old, may underestimate the risks of low level exposure to ionising radiation by several orders of magnitude. This page is largely by Busby himself. +
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Chris Busby/Research on The Health Risks of Radiation +
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