|Date||22 September 1980 - 20 August 1988|
|Location||Iran, Iraq, Persian Gulf|
|Interest of||Hans Melchers|
The Iran–Iraq War was a protracted armed conflict that began on 22 September 1980 when Iraq invaded neighbouring Iran. The war lasted almost eight years, ending in a stalemate on 20 August 1988 when Iran accepted a UN-brokered ceasefire.
When in 1980 Saddam Hussein decided to stage a war against Iran, Iraq per se did not have the political will and military might required to launch an attack on the Iranian soil. It was actually the CIA and the Reagan administration  who encouraged Iraq to undertake an anti-Iranian offensive from 1980 to 1988.
After the Carter administration's operation Eagle Claw, the CIA staged a failed coup with the help of Saddam and the remnants of the old Iranian government who sought refuge in Iraq with Saddam. This coup, known as Nojeh ou Nuzhih, struck a heavy blow to Iranian armed forces as several high ranking officials, who were complicit in this coup, were executed for treason. Saddam was even being counseled by Shah’s generals in estimating the Iranian armed forces and their defensive powers, which they evaluated to be meager because of the social upheaval and restructuring brought on by the revolution and US-backed sanctions.
20 things the U.S. did to help Saddam against Iran
A) Political support
1. US removed Iraq from list of State Sponsors of Terrorism; 1982.
2. US and its allies supported "no decision" at UN on Iraq’s use of chemical weapons; 1984.
3. Bush signed NSD 26 to ensure the security of Iraq; 1989.
B) Military Support
4. $1.5 billion worth of Pathogenic, toxigenic and other biological research materials were exported to Iraq; 1985-89.
5. US delivered 200 million dollars’ worth of arms; 1983-90.
6. CIA secretly directed armaments and hi-tech components to Iraq; 1985-90.
7. CIA secretly encouraged rogue arms dealers and private military companies to funnel arm to Iraq; 1985-90.
8. US based company, Alcolac International exported mustard gas to Iraq; 1987-88.
9. Almost 150 foreign companies supported Saddam Hussein's WMD program; 1975-91.
10. 60 officers of the Defense Intelligence Agency provided logistic information to Iraq; 1987- 88.
11. US navy escorted Iraqi oil tankers while Iraq was targeting Iranian tankers; 1987-88.
12. Saddam's elite troops were trained in US; 1980s.
13. Iraqi helicopter pilots received training in the United States; 1980s.
14. The United States assisted Iraq through a military aid program known as "Bear Spares"; 1980s.
C) US direct attack on Iran while in war with Saddam
15. US directly attacked Iran by hitting Iran’s oil platforms; 1987.
16. US directly attacked Iran’s navy in unproportionatal and unreasonable war; 1988.
17. US shot down Iranian civilian airliner in the Iranian territory; 1988.
D) Blaming Iran for Iraqi attack on Halabja.
18. US blamed Iran for Iraqi attack on USS Stark; 1987.
E) Logistic Support
19. US spied on Iran with aircraft during operation Eager Glacier and delivered this information to Iraq; 1987-88.
D) Economic Support
20. US funneled $5 billion of American tax payers money to Iraq; 1985-89.
Note the simultaneous Arms-to-Iraq affair.
- Sasan Fayazmanesh (31 March 2008). The United States and Iran: Sanctions, Wars and the Policy of Dual Containment. Routledge. p. 37. https://books.google.com/books?id=Ym6TAgAAQBAJ&pg=PT37&lpg
- Mark J. Gasiorowski (2002), "The Nuzhih Plot and Iranian Politics", Int. J. Middle East Stud. 34 (2002), 645–666. http://tulane.edu/liberal-arts/political-science/upload/Nuzhih-IJMES-11-02.pdf
- Rajaee, Farhang, ed. (1993). The Iran-Iraq War: The Politics of Aggression. Gainesville: University Press of Florida.