Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action
| JCPOA |
|Interest of||Tom Cotton|
|Treaty between Iran, the P5+1 (the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council — China, France, Russia, United Kingdom, United States — plus Germany. The United States left its commitments in 2018.|
The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA)), known commonly as the Iran nuclear deal, is an agreement on the Iranian nuclear program reached in Vienna on 14 July 2015, between Iran, the P5+1 (the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council — China, France, Russia, United Kingdom, United States — plus Germany) and the European Union.
Formal negotiations toward JCPOA began with the adoption of the Joint Plan of Action, an interim agreement signed between Iran and the P5+1 countries in November 2013. Iran and the P5+1 countries engaged in negotiations for the next 20 months and in April 2015 agreed on a framework for the final agreement. In July 2015 Iran and the P5+1 confirmed agreement on the plan along with the "Roadmap Agreement" between Iran and the IAEA.
Under JCPOA, Iran agreed to eliminate its stockpile of medium-enriched uranium, cut its stockpile of low-enriched uranium by 98%, and reduce by about two-thirds the number of its gas centrifuges for 13 years. For the next 15 years Iran will only enrich uranium up to 3.67%. Iran also agreed not to build any new heavy-water facilities for the same period of time. Uranium-enrichment activities will be limited to a single facility using first-generation centrifuges for 10 years. Other facilities will be converted to avoid proliferation risks. To monitor and verify Iran's compliance with the agreement, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) will have regular access to all Iranian nuclear facilities. The agreement provides that in return for verifiably abiding by its commitments, Iran will receive relief from US, European Union, and UN Security Council nuclear-related sanctions.
IAEA inspectors spend 3,000 calendar days per year in Iran, installing tamper-proof seals and collecting surveillance camera photos, measurement data and documents for further analysis. IAEA Director Yukiya Amano stated (in March 2018) that the organisation has verified that Iran is implementing its nuclear-related commitments. On 30 April 2018 the United States and Israel said that Iran had not disclosed a past covert nuclear weapons program to the IAEA, as required by the 2015 deal.
On 8 May 2018 President Trump announced the United States' withdrawal from JCPOA. Following the US's withdrawal, the EU enacted an updated blocking statute on 7 August 2018 to nullify US sanctions on countries trading with Iran. In November 2018 US sanctions came back into effect intended to force Iran to dramatically alter its policies, including its support for militant groups in the region and its development of ballistic missiles.
|Document:Venezuela, Iran: Trump And The Deep State||Article||22 May 2019||Thierry Meyssan||Sheikh Hassan Rouhani was the primary contact with the Western powers during the Iran-Contra affair. He knows Elliott Abrams personally and put the US deep state in relation with Ayatollah Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani, who became the richest billionaire in Iran thanks to this arms traffic.|
- Joshua Keating, "You say P5+1, I say E3+3", Foreign Policy (30 September 2009).
- Jeffrey Lewis, "E3/EU+3 or P5+1", Arms Control Wonk (13 July 2015).
- Amano, Yukia (5 March 2018). "IAEA director general: Introductory remarks at press conference", International Atomic Energy Agency