Next Generation Identification

From Wikispooks
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Concept.png Next Generation Identification
(surveillance technology,  database)Rdf-entity.pngRdf-icon.png
The world's largest and most efficient electronic database of individuals, created by the FBI and other US intelligence services.

Next Generation Identification (NGI) is the world’s largest and most efficient electronic repository of biometric and criminal history information, operated by US police forces, the FBI and other intelligence services.[1]

It is reasonable to assume that the intelligence services have a similar secret database or system of databases that cover a large part of all inhabitants of the entire world.

The system, created by the FBI’s Criminal Justice Information Services (CJIS) Division, includes a national criminal history background check service; an Interstate Photo System; fingerprint verification services; more complete and accurate identity records; and enhancements to the biometric identification repository, including face recognition search and an iris register search. A DNA registry is not yet part of it, but presumably will be connected at some time in the future.

Millions of individuals who are neither criminals nor suspects is included in the database. Many of these individuals will be unaware that their images and other biometric identifiers are being captured. Drivers license photos and other biometric records collected by civil service agencies could be added to the system. The NGI system could be integrated with other surveillance technology, such as Trapwire, that would enable real-time image-matching of live feeds from CCTV surveillance cameras. [2]

Among the private contractors involved in the deployment of NGI are Lockheed Martin, IBM, Accenture and BAE Systems Information Technology.[2]

Facial Recognition Search

A feature of the NGI IPS is the facial recognition search, another way biometrics can be used as an investigative tool. The IPS offers an automated search and response system targeted toward state and local law enforcement. Authorized law enforcement may submit a probe photo for a search against over 30 million criminal mug shot photos and receive a list of ranked candidates as potential investigative leads.[1]

Using facial recognition on images of crowds, NGI will enable the identification of individuals in public settings, whether or not the police have made the necessary legal showing to compel the disclosure of identification documents.[2]

NGI Iris Service

The Next Generation Identification (NGI) Iris Service, provides a fast, accurate, and contactless biometric identification option for law enforcement and criminal justice users. The NGI Iris Service uses an iris image repository within the NGI system. All iris images enrolled in the repository are linked to a tenprint fingerprint record.

The NGI Iris Service has an automated iris search that is used for identification validation at some correctional facilities. Typically, inmates have an image of their iris scanned upon arrival. Then, when they are moved or released, staff scan the inmate’s eyes again to help ensure they are moving or releasing the correct person. In the future, this technology may also be used for moving arrestees, in court proceedings, and for probation/parole.

Once the NGI iris image repository grows, participating agencies will be able to search an iris image against the repository for an automated and contactless way to identify a subject.

Repository for Individuals of Special Concern (RISC)

In August 2011, the RISC, a rapid search service accessible to law enforcement officers nationwide, became available through the use of a mobile fingerprint device. The NGI rapid search, with response times of less than 10 seconds, offers additional officer safety and situational awareness by providing on-scene access to a national repository of wants and warrants including the Immigration Violator File (IVF) of the National Crime Information Center (NCIC), convicted sex offenders, and known or appropriately suspected terrorists. [1]

Rap Back

The Rap Back service allows authorized agencies to receive notification of activity on individuals who hold positions of trust (e.g. school teachers, daycare workers) or who are under criminal justice supervision or investigation, thus eliminating the need for repeated background checks on a person from the same applicant agency. Prior to the deployment of Rap Back, the national criminal history background check system provided a one-time snapshot view of an individual’s criminal history status. With Rap Back, authorized agencies can receive on-going status notifications of any criminal history reported to the FBI after the initial processing and retention of criminal or civil transactions. By using fingerprint identification to identify persons arrested and prosecuted for crimes, Rap Back provides a nationwide notice to both criminal justice and noncriminal justice authorities regarding subsequent actions.

Interstate Photo System

The Interstate Photo System, or IPS, is the FBI's repository of all photos received with tenprint transactions, by qualifying submission or bulk submission, when verified with an existing tenprint record. The IPS permits broader acceptance and use of photos by allowing[1]:

  • More photo sets per FBI record for criminal subjects.
  • Bulk submission of photos maintained at state repositories.
  • Submission of photos other than facial (i.e., scars, marks, tattoo, symbols).

Advanced Fingerprint Identification Technology (AFIT)

The FBI deployed the first increment of the NGI System in February 2011, when the AFIT replaced the legacy Automated Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS). The AFIT enhanced fingerprint and latent processing services, increased the accuracy and daily fingerprint processing capacity, and improved system availability. The CJIS Division implemented a new fingerprint-matching algorithm that improved matching accuracy from 92 percent to more than 99.6 percent.[1]

Latent and Palm Prints

The NGI System’s latent functionality uses a Friction Ridge Investigative File composed of all retained events for an individual as opposed to one composite image set per identity. These multiple events in the repository result in three times the previous latent search accuracy and allow for additional event image retrieval.[1]

Prior to the NGI System, latent images searched against the criminal repository. Now, latent users can search latent images against the criminal, civil, and Unsolved Latent File (ULF) repositories. Moreover, incoming criminal and civil submissions (tenprint, palm print, RISC, and supplemental fingerprints) are cascaded against the ULF, generating new investigative leads in unsolved and/or cold cases. The CJIS Division recommends latent fingerprint images submitted prior to 2013 be resubmitted to the NGI system if no identification was made during the initial search.[1]

In May 2013, the FBI established the National Palm Print System (NPPS). This system contains palm prints that are searchable to law enforcement nationwide. The NGI System also allows direct enrollment and deletion of palm prints and supplemental fingerprints similar to the existing direct fingerprint enrollment capability. These types of search and enrollment enhancements provide powerful new crime-solving capabilities to local, state, tribal, and federal law enforcement agencies across the country.

Cold Case/Unknown Deceased

To further increase the tools available to police organizations, the CJIS Division has made a commitment to establish enhanced services to assist in meeting the challenges that face the criminal justice community in the identification of cold case/unknown deceased investigations. Using the advanced search algorithms within NGI, and the ability to cascade NGI searches against the criminal and civil files, as well as event based searches, this tool will strengthen criminal investigations and increase the use of enhanced state-of-the-art biometric technologies.