| AZD1222 |
|Interest of||Sarah Gilbert|
AZD1222 (also known as ChAdOx1 nCoV-19) is a COVID-19 jab developed by Oxford University and AstraZeneca collaborating with the Italian biotech firm Irbm Science Park given by intramuscular injection, using as a vector the modified chimpanzee adenovirus (ChAdOx1).
The express research was done by the Oxford University's Jenner Institute and Oxford Vaccine Group. The team is led by Sarah Gilbert Adrian Hill, Andrew Pollard, Teresa Lambe, Sandy Douglas and Catherine Green 
As 2021 progressed, millions of people across the world received the vaccine, but by early March 2021, more than 20 countries had suspended or said they will delay the rollout of the vaccine, based on reports of deaths or injuries — in most cases related to blood clots — in healthy people who received the vaccine. Prosecutors in Northern Italy announced they had seized a batch of 393,600 shots of the AstraZeneca COVID vaccine following the death of a 57-year-old man hours after he was vaccinated,
Of interest is why criticism of AZD1222 has been allowed. From as early as December 2020, the AZ shot was being described as an “also ran” compared to the products made by Pfizer and Moderna. The answer might be a simple marketing ploy designed to create, and reinforce, faith in the system. You produce several vaccines all in the space of a year (all with equally unknown long-term effects), and then you repudiate one for “being unsafe”, and you create the illusion that a) the others are safe b) the system works and c) you honestly care about public health.
It should also be noted that AZD1222 is not a mRNA vaccine, unlike the Pfizer and Moderna products. So there might be an interest in bad-mouthing it, if the end goal is to study the impact of mRNA technology on humans.
Sarah Gilbert and Oxford University.
Approved for use
On 8 December 2020, The Lancet published an article entitled "Safety and efficacy of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine (AZD1222) against SARS-CoV-2: an interim analysis of four randomised controlled trials in Brazil, South Africa, and the UK". There were 11,636 participants (7,548 in the UK, 4,088 in Brazil) included in the interim primary efficacy analysis. In participants who received two standard doses, vaccine efficacy was 62·1% and in participants who received a low dose followed by a standard dose, efficacy was 90·0%. Overall AZD1222 vaccine efficacy across both groups was 70·4%.
On 30 December 2020, AZD1222 was approved for use in the COVID-19 vaccination programme in the United Kingdom.
The Government has today accepted the recommendation from the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) to authorise Oxford University/AstraZeneca’s COVID-19 jab for use. This follows rigorous clinical trials and a thorough analysis of the data by experts at the MHRA, which has concluded that the vaccine has met its strict standards of safety, quality and effectiveness.
The AZD1222 vaccine is a replication-deficient simian adenovirus vector, containing the full‐length codon‐optimised coding sequence of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein along with a tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) leader sequence.
The researchers used the SARS-CoV-2 genome that had been sequenced in Wuhan. The modified monkey adenovirus cannot replicate, so does not cause further infection, and instead acts as a vector to transfer the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein.
The spike S1 protein is an external protein that enables the SARS-type coronavirus to enter cells through the enzymatic domain of ACE2. After vaccination, this spike protein is produced, promoting the immune system to attack the coronavirus if it later infects the body.
The 1,2,3 phase trial for AZD1222 was registered with the US Center for Disease Control as clinical trial NCT04516746.  It is ongoing and the end date is February 21st 2023. The CDC state:
No Study Results Posted
As Iain Davis pointed out"
Astrazeneca is several years from reporting any “final data.” It is impossible for the UK Department of Health to review it, because it doesn’t exist.
Virologist Sucharit Bhakdi pointed out how the trial was changed in the middle:
Concerning all three gene-based vaccines - carefully hidden from the general public - worrying immediate side effects were noticed: severe swelling and pain at the injection site, high fever up to chills, worst headache, limb pain and muscle pain in the whole body, diarrhea, nausea, Vomit. Many vaccinated people became sick and unable to work. The side effects were so bad that AstraZeneca had to change the protocol in the middle of the study. From then on, study participants received high doses of pain reliever and fever reliever paracetamol to make the vaccination reasonably tolerable. Such a change in the study protocol is by no means permissible by scientific standards. Why was an exception made here? But it goes on. The AstraZeneca study was interrupted in July and September 2020 because an extremely rare autoimmune disease of the spinal cord occurred in vaccinated people. "Transverse myelitis" is associated with symptoms of paralysis and occurs with a frequency of around three cases per million inhabitants. It is therefore astonishing that two cases were recorded in a group of a manageable number of vaccinated people.
Combining with Sputnik V
On 11 December 2020, AstraZeneca announced a clinical trial programme to assess safety and immunogenicity of a combination of AZD1222 and Sputnik V, developed by Russian Gamaleya Research Institute. Dr Zoltán Kis, Research Associate at the Future Vaccine Manufacturing Hub, Imperial College (London), said:
“Both the AstraZeneca/Oxford vaccine candidate and the Sputnik V vaccine are adenovirus vectored vaccines and both deliver genetic instructions for the cells of the body to produce the Spike protein of SARS-CoV-2. The AstraZeneca/Oxford vaccine candidate is based on a chimpanzee adenovirus and the Sputnik V vaccine is based on a human adenovirus, thus the vectors (or carriers) of these two vaccines are slightly different.
“The immune system of the human body can generate an immune response against the adenoviral vector itself, thus if a second dose of the same adenovirus vectored vaccine is delivered, the immune system could destroy the vector, before the payload of the vaccine is delivered, therefore reducing the efficacy of the second vaccine dose. On the other hand, if the vector of the second (booster) dose of the vaccine is different from the vector of the first (prime) dose, the immune system will be less likely to destroy the vector of the vaccine, thus the efficacy of the heterologous boosting vaccination could be increased, compared to the situation where both the prime and boost doses were of the same vector type. Therefore, the reason why heterologous boosting could increase vaccine efficacy, is that the (partial) destruction of the second vaccine dose by the immune system can be avoided and because both vaccines contain instructions for producing the same antigen.
“Furthermore, having the possibility of combining these two vaccine types would allow for greater flexibility in the vaccination programs. This could lead to greater accessibility to vaccines, thus increasing the rate and scale of Covid-19 vaccination coverage.
“For these reasons, the news regarding clinical trials of this heterologous boosting Covid-19 vaccination is a promising one.”
In September 2020, a Russian part of the AZD1222 trial was suspended after a Suspected Unexpected Serious Adverse Reaction (SUSAR) event occurred. The SUSAR supposedly happened in the United Kingdom after a 37-year old woman developed inflammation of the spinal chord. It appears the Russian Ministry of Health have yet to reinstate their arm of the AstraZeneca/Oxford trial while it has resumed in the UK and elsewhere.
Marketed as "Vaxzevria" in Australia.
Marketed as "Covishield" in India.
Wikipedia is not affiliated with Wikispooks. Original page source here
AZD1222 victims on Wikispooks
|Michelle Barlow||British woman who died from the Oxford–AstraZeneca COVID-19/Vaccine.|
|Lisa Shaw||British radio presenter who tragically died after having the Oxford–AstraZeneca COVID-19/Vaccine.|
|Alpa Tailor||British woman who died from the Oxford–AstraZeneca COVID-19/Vaccine.|
|Byram Bridle||“But this is because these COVID-19 vaccines have reached the public rollout phase by, and I’ll say it in quotes, “cutting corners”. And by cutting corners, I’m not implying that people were skipping key steps, although honestly, there could be some potential questions around that.”||Byram Bridle||24 February 2021|
|Byram Bridle||“None of us were expecting, I don’t think, that the vaccines would be rolled out very early on in the phase three clinical trials. So the phase three trials are not done. So in essence, what this means is the public rollout right now is an extension of the phase three clinical trial. So those being vaccinated now are, whether they realize it or not, part of the phase three experiment.”||Byram Bridle||24 February 2021|
- ↑ https://pathologie-konferenz.de/en/
- ↑ "The Jenner Institute signs an agreement with Advent to develop a novel coronavirus vaccine"
- ↑ "The world's hopes for a coronavirus vaccine may run in these health care workers' veins"
- ↑ https://twitter.com/CathGreenLab
- ↑ https://www.ox.ac.uk/news/2020-02-07-oxford-team-begin-novel-coronavirus-vaccine-research "Oxford team to begin novel coronavirus vaccine research"]
- ↑ https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2021/3/15/which-countries-have-halted-use-of-astrazenecas-covid-vaccine
- ↑ https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-italy-astrazeneca/italy-prosecutors-seize-batch-of-astrazeneca-vaccine-after-death-of-man-idUSKBN2B71QQ
- ↑ https://www.evaluate.com/vantage/articles/news/trial-results/astrazenecas-vaccine-looks-increasingly-also-ran
- ↑ https://off-guardian.org/2021/08/29/this-week-in-the-new-normal-4/
- ↑ https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-55280671
- ↑ "Safety and efficacy of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine (AZD1222) against SARS-CoV-2: an interim analysis of four randomised controlled trials in Brazil, South Africa, and the UK"
- ↑ "Covid-19: Oxford-AstraZeneca coronavirus vaccine approved for use in UK"
- ↑ "Is good news for India on the vaccine front here?"
- ↑ "Oxford University/AstraZeneca vaccine authorised by UK medicines regulator"
- ↑ Reviews in Medical Virology: "Severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 spike (S) protein based vaccine candidates: State of the art and future prospects" by Arashkia A, Jalilvand S, Mohajel N, Afchangi A, Azadmanesh K, Salehi-Vaziri M, Fazlalipour M, Pouriayevali MH, Jalali T, Mousavi Nasab SD, Roohvand F, Shoja
- ↑ "Exeter Fellow Dr Catherine Green leads the production of a potential COVID-19 vaccine in Oxford"
- ↑ Cell Research: "SARS coronavirus entry into host cells through a novel clathrin- and caveolae-independent endocytic pathway" by Wang H, Yang P, Liu K, Guo F, Zhang Y, Zhang G, Jiang C
- ↑ https://web.archive.org/web/20201128213442/https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/results/NCT04516746
- ↑ https://off-guardian.org/2021/01/03/what-vaccine-trials/
- ↑ https://www.rubikon.news/artikel/der-impfrausch
- ↑ "Expert reaction to AstraZeneca announcing clinical trial programme to assess combination of the Oxford AstraZeneca vaccine and the Sputnik V vaccine"
- ↑ https://web.archive.org/web/20201229112508/https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/study/NCT04540393
- ↑ https://7news.com.au/sunrise/on-the-show/astrazeneca-to-change-covid-vaccine-name-to-vaxzevria-in-australia-c-3720918/
- ↑ https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-india-58647433