Piazza Fontana bombing
|Date||16:37 12 December, 1969|
|Location||Piazza Fontana, Milan, Italy|
|Blamed on||Carlo Digilio, Ordine Nuovo|
|Type||• Mass murder|
|Description||An act of terrorism carried out by NATO backed groups to try prevent the electoral success of the Italian communist party.|
The Piazza Fontana massacre was a bomb which exploded on 12 December, 1969, killing 17 and injuring 88 people. The same afternoon, three other bombs were detonated in Rome and Milan, and another was found unexploded.
The Piazza Fontana bombing was initially attributed to anarchists. After over 80 arrests were made. An anarchist railway worker, Giuseppe Pinelli, died after falling from the fourth floor window of the police station where he was being held. Initially this was termed a suicide that occurred during an interrogation session being lead by Commissioner Luigi Calabresi. However, public prosecutor Gerardo D'Ambrosio later officially determined that his fall was due to his fainting and losing balance.
In 1972 Luigi Calabresi was assassinated, reportedly by left-wing militants of Lotta Continua who held Calabresi responsible for Pinelli's death. Adriano Sofri and Giorgio Pietrostefani, former leaders of Lotta Continua, were convicted of plotting Calabresi's assassination, while members Ovidio Bompressi and Leonardo Marino were sentenced for carrying it out.
Further investogations implicated the Neo-fascist organization Ordine Nuovo. On 3 March 1972 Franco Freda, Giovanni Ventura and Rauti were arrested and charged with planning the terrorist attacks of 25 April 1969 at the Trade Fair and Railway Station in Milan, and the August 8 and August 9, 1969 bombings of several trains, followed by the Piazza Fontana bombing.
The accused were Franco Freda, Giovanni Ventura, Marco Pozzan, Antonio Massari, Angelo Ventura, Luigi Ventura, Franco Comacchio, Giancarlo Marchesin, Ida Zanon, Ruggero Pan, Claudio Orsi, Claudio Mutti, Pietro Loredan, Gianadelio Maletti, Antonio Labruna, Guido Giannettini, Gaetano Tanzilli, Stefano Serpieri, Stefano Delle Chiaie, Udo Lemke, Pietro Valpreda, Mario Merlino, Emilio Bagnoli, Roberto Gargamelli, Ivo Della Savia, Enrico Di Cola, Maddalena Valpreda, Ele Lovati Valpreda, Rachele Torri and Olimpia Torri Lovati.
The Official Culprits
|Ordine Nuovo||A fascist group set up under the Italian Operation Gladio|
- "1969: Deadly bomb blasts in Italy". BBC News. 12 December 1965. Retrieved April 2006. Check date values in:
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- "Né omicidio né suicidio: Pinelli cadde perché colto da malore", La Stampa, October 29, 1975 (in Italian)
- "Definitive le condanne per Sofri e gli altri", Corriere della Sera, January 23, 1997 (in Italian).