CIA/Directorate of Operations
|CIA/Directorate of Operations|
|Predecessor||CIA Directorate of Plans|
|Successor||National Clandestine Service|
|Formation||1 March 1973|
|Extinction||13 October 2005|
|Leader||CIA/Deputy Director of Operations|
The Directorate of Operations (DO) serves as the clandestine arm of the Central Intelligence Agency, it's core mission is to: "strengthen national security and foreign policy objectives through the clandestine collection of human intelligence (HUMINT) and Covert Action." The office has been renamed, or was merged with other, newly created offices several times over the years. It was known as the Directorate of Plans from 1951 to 1973; as the Directorate of Operations from 1973 to 2005; and as the National Clandestine Service from 2005 to 2015.
Deputy Director for Operations
- William E. Colby - 2 Mar 73-24 Aug 73.
- William E. Nelson - 24 Aug 73-14 May 76.
- William W. Wells - 15 May 76-31 Dec 77.
- John N. McMahon - 11 Jan 78-12 Apr 81.
- Max Hugel, 11 May 81-14 Jul 81.
- John H. Stein, 14 Jul 81-1 Jul 84.
- Clair E. George, 1 Jul 84-1 Dec 87.
- Richard F. Stolz, 4 Jan 88-31 Dec 90.
- Thomas Twetten - 1991-1993
- Hugh E. Price - January 1994-May 1995.
- David Cohen - 1995-1997
- Jack Downing - 1997-1999
- James Pavitt - 1999-2004
- Stephen Kappes - 2004
- Jose Rodriguez
- Directorate of Operations (DO) FAQ saved at Archive.org
- Directorate of Operations (DO) Mission Statement saved at Archive.org saved at Archive.is
- CIA Celebrates 60 Years, CIA, 15 March 2010.
- William H. Webster, Chronology of CIA's Senior Management Structure, CIA, 2 July 1991, archived at Federation of American Scientists.
- Steve Coll, Ghost Wars: The Secret History of the CIA, Afghanistan and Bin Laden, from the Soviet Invasion to September 10, 2001, Penguin, 2005, p.xv.
- Tim Weiner, Facing Ouster, Top U.S. Spy Plans to Retire, New York Times, 3 May 1995.
- MAYOR MICHAEL R. BLOOMBERG AND POLICE COMMISSIONER RAYMOND W. KELLY ANNOUNCE APPOINTMENT OF DAVID COHEN IN NEWLY-CREATED POST OF DEPUTY COMMISSIONER OF INTELLIGENCE, Office of the Mayor, City of New York, 24 January 2002.
- DCI Announces Departure of Jack Downing, CIA, 7 May 1999.
- CIA Deputy Director for Operations Announces Retirement, CIA, 4 June 2004.
- Mark Mazzetti, A Storied Operative Returns to the C.I.A., New York Times, 30 May 2006.
- Excerpts of Remarks by the CIA Director at Ceremony for the NCS Director, CIA, 28 August 2007.