Frontline States

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The Frontline States (FLS) was an organisation which was established to achieve majority rule in South Africa. It no longer exists. Former members included Angola, Botswana, Lesotho, Mozambique, Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe.[1] United States relations with Front Line States reached their peak during the human rights push of the Carter administration.[2] During the Reagan administration, Assistant Secretary of State for Africa Chester Crocker and the Front Line States were engaged diplomatically to achieve landmark peace accords between South Africa, Mozambique, Angola (Lusaka Protocol of 1994), and Namibia (New York Accords of 1988).[3][4]


  1. "Black nations seek summit with Reagan" (25 Aug 1986) The Ottawa Citizen p.A6
  2. "CASTRO VERSUS CARTER: Bad news for Zimbabwe" (23 Oct 1979) The Globe and Mail p.P7, Toronto, Ontario
  3. "Namibia: Will it look like Austria, Finland?" (20 Apr 1981) The Christian Science Monitor
  4. "Washington's No-Apologies Approach to the Third World" (06 Sep 1981) New York Times p.A1

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