File:Rogue Agents - the Cercle and the 6I in the Private Cold War 1951 - 1991 by David Teacher (5th edn, 2017).pdf
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Rogue Agents - The Cercle and the 6I in the Private Cold War 1951-1991 (5rd edition 2017)
The Cercle Pinay was founded in 1952-53 as a confidential forum of European leaders who sought to promote the vision of a Catholic and conservative Europe and to oppose the threat of Communism. Shrouded in secrecy, the Cercle brought together statesmen such as Antoine Pinay, Konrad Adenauer, Franz Josef Strauß, Giulio Andreotti, Otto von Habsburg, [[Richard Nixon]], Henry Kissinger and David Rockefeller, as well as top figures from the European and American intelligence services. Following the rise of student counter-culture in the 1960s, the Cercle focused on domestic subversion, using its network of propaganda and intelligence veterans to attack progressive politicians such as Harold Wilson, Willy Brandt, Jimmy Carter and François Mitterrand, and to promote their favoured candidates: Giscard d'Estaing, Margaret Thatcher, Ronald Reagan and Franz Josef Strauß. Throughout the 1960s and 1970s, the Cercle also worked to defend apartheid South Africa and the dictatorships in Spain and Portugal. After the electoral victory of the Right in 1979-1980, the Cercle and the private intelligence agency, the 6I, targeted Western peace campaigners and the new Soviet regime under Mikhail Gorbachev. Meanwhile, Habsburg played a key part in the fall of the [[Iron Curtain]] and then ensured the integration of Eastern Europe into the European Union.
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