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|( 1860s: ) 1866|
Alfred Nobel invents dynamite
- March 13 – The United States Congress overwhelmingly passes the Civil Rights Act of 1866, the first federal legislation to protect the rights of African-Americans; U.S. President Andrew Johnson vetoes the bill on March 27, and Congress overrides the veto on April 9.
- April 4 – Alexander II of Russia narrowly escapes an assassination attempt in the city of St Petersburg.
- May 2 – Battle of Callao: Peruvian defenders fight the Spanish fleet.
- May 7 – Student Ferdinand Cohen-Blind makes a failed attempt to assassinate Otto von Bismarck in Unter den Linden in Berlin.
- June 8 – The Parliament of Canada meets for the first time in Ottawa.
- June 14 – The Austro-Prussian War begins, when the Austrians and most of the medium German states declare war on Prussia.
- June 20 – The Kingdom of Italy declares war on Austria.
- June 22 – In Sweden, the Riksdag of the Estates votes to replace itself by an elected two-chamber Riksdag.
- July 13 (July 1 Old Style) – The first Constitution of Romania is issued.
- July 24 – Reconstruction: Tennessee becomes the first U.S. state to be readmitted to the Union following the American Civil War.
- July 27 – The SS Great Eastern successfully completes laying the transatlantic telegraph cable between Valentia Island, Ireland and Heart's Content, Newfoundland, permanently restoring a communications link.
- August 23 – The Treaty of Prague ends the Austro-Prussian War. The Duchy of Limburg leaves the German Confederation.
- October 12 – The Treaty of Vienna ends the war between Austria and Italy; it formalizes the annexation of Venetia by Italy.
- October 14 – French troops under the command of Rear Admiral Pierre-Gustave Roze land at Ganghwa Island, Korea as part of a punitive expedition against that kingdom for the execution of French Jesuit priests. It is the first military contact between Korea and a Western force.
- Alfred Nobel invents dynamite in Germany.
- Foundation of the predecessors of Nestlé S.A., the Anglo-Swiss Milk Company and Farine Lactée Henri Nestlé.
- The Famine of 1866–68 begins in Finland.
- Erasmus Jacobs discovers the 21.25 carats (4.250 g) Eureka Diamond near Hopetown on the banks of the Orange River in the Cape of Good Hope.
|American University of Beirut||Military ranks||Prestigious US-run university in Lebanon|
|University of New Hampshire||Public|
|The largest university in the US state of New Hampshire|
|Title||Born||Place of birth||Died||Summary||Description|
|Robert Livingston Beeckman||15 April 1866||21 January 1935||Politician|
|Henri Deterding||19 April 1866||4 February 1939||Deep politician||Anglo-Dutch oil tycoon, one of the richest men in the world, oil cartel instigator, very early sponsor of Hitler|
|Hiram Johnson||2 September 1866||California|
|6 August 1945||Politician||A leading US "isolationist" politician.|
|H. G. Wells||21 September 1866||Kent|
|13 August 1946||Author||English science fiction writer and futurist|
|Ramsay MacDonald||12 October 1866||Scotland|
|9 November 1937||Journalist|
- "Civil Rights Act of 1866", in Encyclopedia of African American History, Volume 1, Leslie Alexander, ed. (ABC-CLIO, 2010) p699.