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|( 1860s: ) 1860|
"Looty", queen Victoria's pekingese, gifted to her from the looting of the Summer Palace
- March 22 – The Grand Duchy of Tuscany is annexed to the newly formed Kingdom of Italy.
- March 24 – Sakuradamon Incident: Rōnin samurai of the Mito Domain in Japan assassinate tairō (Chief Minister) Ii Naosuke outside the Sakurada Gate of Edo Castle, disaffected with his role in the opening of Japan to foreign powers.
- April 2 – The first Italian Parliament meets at Turin.
- Template:OldStyleDate – The State Bank of the Russian Empire is established.
- June 30 – A historic debate about evolution is held, at the Oxford University Museum.
- July 2 – Vladivostok is founded in Russia.
- July 11 – Mutsuhito (the future Emperor Meiji) becomes Crown Prince of Japan.
- July 20 – Battle of Milazzo: The forces of Giuseppe Garibaldi defeat royal Neapolitan forces near Messina, bringing nearly all of Sicily under Garibaldi's control.
- August 22 – Assisted by the British Navy, the troops of Giuseppe Garibaldi cross from Sicily to the Italian mainland.
- October 18 – The first Convention of Peking formally ends the Second Opium War.
- October 18–21 – Beijing's Old Summer Palace is burned to the ground by orders of British general Lord Elgin, during the Second Opium War.
- November 6 – U.S. presidential election: Abraham Lincoln beats John C. Breckinridge, Stephen A. Douglas, and John Bell, and is elected as the 16th President of the United States, the first Republican to hold that office.
- December 20 – American Civil War: South Carolina becomes the first state to secede from the United States.
- December 29 – The world's first ocean-going (all) iron-hulled and armoured battleship, the (British) HMS Warrior, is launched.
- China agrees, in an unequal treaty (the Convention of Peking) imposed on it, to allow missionaries to proselytize throughout the country.
- German chemist Albert Niemann makes a detailed analysis of the coca leaf, isolating and purifying the alkaloid, which he calls cocaine.
- Britain produces 20% of the entire world's output of industrial goods.
- The Russian Empire has c. 1,250 miles (2,010 km) of railroads.
- The American South has c. 4 million slaves.
- 1860–1900 – 14 million immigrants come to the United States.
- The first local law was passed concerning usage of drugs - although the first nationwide policy would not be implemented until the Harrison Tax Act of 1914.
|Louisiana State University||Flagship state university Land-grant|
|Expanded massively by governor Huey Pierce Long Jr. in 1930.|
|Bard College||Military ranks|
Liberal arts college
|Liberal arts college in New York State from 2021 funded by Open Society Foundations|
|Augustana College||Private university||The largest private university in South Dakota|
|Catholic boarding school for boys in Ireland|
|Title||Born||Died||Place of death||Summary||Description|
|George Hamilton-Gordon||28 January 1784||14 December 1860||Middlesex|
|Title||Born||Place of birth||Died||Summary||Description|
|Cleveland Dodge||26 January 1860||24 June 1926||Financier||The main donor to the US presidential campaign of Woodrow Wilson.|
|William Jennings Bryan||19 March 1860||Illinois|
|26 July 1925||Lawyer|
|Theodore Herzl||2 May 1860||Hungary|
|3 July 1904||Author|
|Vittorio Orlando||19 May 1860||Sicilies|
|1 December 1952||Politician|
|Wirt Dexter Walker||1 September 1860||24 April 1899||Lawyer|
|Rufus Isaacs||10 October 1860||London|
|30 December 1935||Diplomat|
- Niemann, Albert (1860). On a New Organic Base in the Coca Leaves ("Über eine neue organische Base in den Cocablättern", published version of Ph.D. dissertation).