Nord Stream

From Wikispooks
(Redirected from Nord Stream 2)
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Group.png Nord Stream  Rdf-entity.pngRdf-icon.png
Nord stream.png
SubpageNord Stream/Sabotage

Nord Stream is a system of offshore natural gas pipelines from Russia to Germany. It includes two lines running from Vyborg to Greifswald forming original Nord Stream, and two lines under construction running from Ust-Luga to Greifswald termed Nord Stream 2.

Nord Stream is owned and operated by Nord Stream AG, headquartered in Zug, Switzerland, whose 51% majority shareholder is the Russian state company Gazprom. German energy companies Wintershall Dea AG and PEG Infrastruktur AG, a subsidiary of E.ON Beteiligungen, hold 15.5% each while Dutch N.V. Nederlandse Gasunie and French Engie hold 9% each. Nord Stream 2 is owned and will be operated by Nord Stream 2 AG, a wholly owned subsidiary of Gazprom.

The first line of Nord Stream (also known as Nord Stream 1)[1], agreed under Chancellor Gerhard Schröder in 2005, was laid by May 2011 and was inaugurated on 8 November 2011. The second line of Nord Stream was laid in 2011–2012 and was inaugurated on 8 October 2012. At 1,222 km (759 mi) in length, Nord Stream is the longest sub-sea pipeline in the world, surpassing the Langeled pipeline.[2]

Nordstream sabotage

Full article: Nordstream sabotage

Nord Stream 2

In 2011 the Nord Stream AG started evaluation of an expansion project consisting of two additional lines, later named Nord Stream 2, to double the overall annual capacity to 110 billion m3 (3.9 trillion cu ft).[3][4][5] In 2013, when the project was initiated, extensions to Holland [6] and even to Britain were discussed.[7] Laying Nord Stream 2 was carried out in 2018–2019, and before the imposition of US sanctions which halted the work, it was expected to become operational in mid-2020.[8]

Nord Stream projects have been opposed by the United States as well as several Central and Eastern European countries because of concerns that it would increase Russia's influence in the region. The US resistance of Nord Stream 2 is also influenced by the country's increased production of natural gas, which gives the US Congress economic incentive to resist the Russian supply of gas to the EU, in favour of US shale gas.[9]

In 2015 an abandoned drone for underwater demolition was found in proximity to the pipeline.[10][11]

On 21 December 2019, the construction company had suspended its Nord Stream 2 pipelaying activities, anticipating NDAA of 2020, containing sanctions.[12][13][14] A Russian construction vessel continued the pipeline after months.

By the end of March 2021 warships, submarines, planes and fishing ships from different countries were entering the exclusion zone around the construction vessels, which is in effect for safety/security reasons.[15][16]

Nord Stream 2 AG filed for bankruptcy on 1 March 2022 and laid off all 106 employees from its headquarters in Zug, Switzerland.[17]


Related Quotation

Jarosław Kaczyński“You can't constantly support a great power like Russia with billions in payments from the purchase of energy," [...] "This is inadmissible from a political and moral point of view. This must come to an end, and Germany should finally take a clear stance on this,”Jarosław Kaczyński3 April 2022


Related Documents

TitleTypePublication dateAuthor(s)Description
Document:How America Took Out The Nord Stream PipelineArticle8 February 2023Seymour HershUnder Secretary of State Victoria Nuland told Senator Ted Cruz: “Like you, I am, and I think the Administration is, very gratified to know that Nord Stream 2 is now, as you like to say, a hunk of metal at the bottom of the sea” (Senate Foreign Relations Committee, 26 January 2023).
Document:Navalny, Ukraine and the Westarticle18 September 2020'Rhys James'A tongue-in-cheek, mildly satirical commentary on the latest "Vladimir Putin poisoned my cat" Novichok nonsense emanating from the Westerm media over the September 2020 hospitalisation of Russian 'opposition politician' and Western super-hero Alexei Navalny
Document:Nord Stream 2 requires military protectionArticle14 April 2021
Document:Novichok, Navalny, Nordstream, Nonsenseblog post3 September 2020Craig MurrayThe US and Saudi Arabia have every reason to instigate a split between Germany and Russia at this time. Navalny is certainly a victim of international politics. That he is a victim of Putin I tend to doubt.
Document:The Time to Negotiate Peace in Ukraine Is NOWArticle24 October 2022Richard E. RubensteinAre things in Ukraine getting worse? Yes, for both sides. This is precisely the right time to give peace a chance.
Document:The dirty secret Europe is hiding at the COP27 climate summitArticle16 November 2022Jonathan CookGrand declarations at COP27 on tackling the climate emergency are sabotaged by the Energy Charter Treaty from the 1990s that sees European nations held to ransom by the energy companies
Document:Would-be German chancellor Scholz jumps the gun on EU expansion eastward, which may provoke more states to follow the UK and exitArticle15 August 2021Paul NuttallOlaf Scholz is a possible candidate for Chancellor of Germany at the September 2021 German parliamentary election. He has warned Russia to expect further European integration and expansion into Eastern Europe. Will this encourage more countries to follow the UK and leave the European Union?
Many thanks to our Patrons who cover ~2/3 of our hosting bill. Please join them if you can.


Wikipedia.png This page imported content from Wikipedia on 3 September 2020.
Wikipedia is not affiliated with Wikispooks.   Original page source here