Universal Basic Income

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Interest ofGuy Standing

An unconditional basic income is given to citizens of a country because they are citizens, not conditional upon other qualifications. Some people have suggested that a universal basic income would be a good way to eliminate poverty and deal with unemployment.

Public opinion

A majority of the public in several countries support the introduction of an unconditional basic income, including France.[1]

Pilot projects

Basic income pilots have been conducted in United States and Canada in the 1960s and 1970s, Namibia (from 2008) and India (from 2011).

Switzerland had a referendum on the topic in 2016 which rejected a UBI. Finland and Spain were conducting trials as of 2018.[2]


Iran was the first country to introduce a national basic income. Since Autumn 2010 it has paid an income to all citizens and replace the decades long system of subsidies of petrol, fuel, and other supplies. In 2012, the sum corresponded to about 40 U.S. dollars per person per month.