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|( 1900s: ) 1905|
The Russian Revolution of 1905. Artistic impression of the mutiny by the crew of the battleship Potemkin against the ship's officers on 14 June.
- January 1 – The Trans-Siberian Railway officially opens, after its completion on July 21, 1904.
- March 3 – Tsar Nicholas II of Russia agrees to create an elected assembly (the Duma).
- March 4 – Second inauguration of Theodore Roosevelt: Theodore Roosevelt is sworn in for a full term as 26th President of the United States.
- March 13 – Mata Hari introduces her exotic dance act in Paris.
- March 23 – Theriso revolt: About 1,500 men, led by Eleftherios Venizelos, meet at the village of Theriso in Crete to challenge the island's authoritarian government and press for its unification with Greece.
- March 31 – Wilhelm II, German Emperor asserts German equality with France in Morocco, triggering the Tangier or First Moroccan Crisis.
- April 30 – Albert Einstein completes his doctoral dissertation, A New Determination of Molecular Dimensions (submitted July 30 to the University of Zurich).
- June 7 – The Norwegian Parliament declares dissolution of the union between Norway and Sweden, giving Norway full independence.
- June 27 – (June 14 O.S.): Mutiny breaks out on the Russian ironclad Potemkin.
- July 22 – Taft–Katsura Secret Agreement: The United States and Japan meet to discuss their respective positions regarding Korea and the Philippines.
- Aug 20 – Sun Yat-sen, Chinese revolutionary, forms the first chapter of T'ung Meng Hui, a union of all secret societies determined to bringing down the Manchu dynasty.
- September 1 – The Canadian provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan are established, from the southwestern part of the Northwest Territories.
- September 5 – Russo-Japanese War: Treaty of Portsmouth – In New Hampshire, a treaty mediated by U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt is signed by Japan and Russia. Russia cedes the island of Sakhalin together with port and rail rights in Manchuria to Japan.
- October 16 – The Partition of Bengal is made by Lord Curzon to separate the region of Bengal into Muslim and Hindu territories until its reunification in 1911.
- October 26 – Sweden agrees to the repeal of the union with Norway.
- October 16 – The Circum-Baikal Railway is brought into permanent operation, completing through rail communication on the Trans-Siberian Railway.
- October 30– (October 17 Old Style) – October Manifesto: Tsar Nicholas II of Russia is forced to announce the granting of his country's first constitution (the Russian Constitution of 1906), conceding a national assembly (State Duma) with limited powers.
- November 12 – Norway holds a referendum, resulting in popular approval of the Storting's decision to authorise the government to make the offer of the throne of the newly independent country.
- November 17 – The Japan–Korea Treaty of 1905 ("Eulsa Treaty") effectively makes Korea a protectorate of Japan.
- November 18 – Prince Carl of Denmark becomes King Haakon VII of Norway.
- November 28 – Irish nationalist Arthur Griffith founds Sinn Féin in Dublin, as a political party whose goal is independence for all of Ireland.
- November–December – Russian Revolution of 1905: In the Baltic governorates, workers and peasants burn and loot hundreds of Baltic German manors. The Imperial Russian Army thereafter executes and deports thousands of looters.
- December 2 – Norsk Hydro, predecessor of Equinor, a state-run energy product and grid brand in Scandinavia, founded in Norway.
- December 7–18 – Moscow Uprising: A Bolshevik-led revolt is suppressed by the army.
- December 9 – The 1905 French law on the Separation of the Churches and the State is passed, enacting laïcité.
- December 30 – A bomb kills Frank Steunenberg, ex-governor of Idaho; the case leads to a trial against leaders of the Western Federation of Miners.
- Alfred Einhorn introduces novocaine.
- Wolves become extinct in Japan.
- Civil service examinations are abolished in Qing dynasty China.
- Ta-Ching Government Bank, predecessor of Bank of China, is founded in Peiping.
- Max Weber publishes The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism (Die Protestantische Ethik und der Geist des Kapitalismus).