Difference between revisions of "Kellogg–Briand Pact"

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{{publication
|WP=https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kellogg%E2%80%93Briand_Pact
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|wikipedia=https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kellogg%E2%80%93Briand_Pact
 
|type=treaty
 
|type=treaty
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|subjects=war
 
|publication_date=August 27, 1928
 
|publication_date=August 27, 1928
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|description=A treaty to make all wars illegal.
 
}}
 
}}
 
The '''Kellogg–Briand Pact''' (or '''Pact of Paris''', officially '''General Treaty for Renunciation of War as an Instrument of National Policy'''<ref>See Certified true copy of the text of the treaty in [http://treaties.un.org/doc/Publication/UNTS/LON/Volume%2094/v94.pdf League of Nations, ''Treaty Series'', vol. 94], p. 57 (No. 2137)</ref>) is a 1928 [[international agreement]] in which signatory states promised not to use [[war]] to resolve "disputes or conflicts of whatever nature or of whatever origin they may be, which may arise among them."<ref>{{citation | url = http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/imt/kbpact.htm | title = Kellogg-Briand Pact 1928 | publisher = [[Yale University]]}}.</ref> Parties failing to abide by this promise "should be denied of the benefits furnished by this treaty." It was signed by [[Germany]], [[France]] and the [[United States]] on August 27, 1928, and by most other nations soon after. Sponsored by France and the U.S., the Pact renounces the use of war and calls for the peaceful settlement of disputes. Similar provisions were incorporated into the [[Charter of the United Nations]] and other treaties and it became a stepping-stone to a more activist American policy.<ref>{{Cite journal | last1 = Josephson | first1 = H. | title = Outlawing War:Internationalism and the Pact of Paris | doi = 10.1111/j.1467-7709.1979.tb00323.x | journal = Diplomatic History | volume = 3 | issue = 4 | pages = 377–390 | year = 1979 | pmid =  | pmc = }}</ref>  It is named after its authors, [[United States Secretary of State]] [[Frank B. Kellogg]] and [[French foreign minister]] [[Aristide Briand]].
 
The '''Kellogg–Briand Pact''' (or '''Pact of Paris''', officially '''General Treaty for Renunciation of War as an Instrument of National Policy'''<ref>See Certified true copy of the text of the treaty in [http://treaties.un.org/doc/Publication/UNTS/LON/Volume%2094/v94.pdf League of Nations, ''Treaty Series'', vol. 94], p. 57 (No. 2137)</ref>) is a 1928 [[international agreement]] in which signatory states promised not to use [[war]] to resolve "disputes or conflicts of whatever nature or of whatever origin they may be, which may arise among them."<ref>{{citation | url = http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/imt/kbpact.htm | title = Kellogg-Briand Pact 1928 | publisher = [[Yale University]]}}.</ref> Parties failing to abide by this promise "should be denied of the benefits furnished by this treaty." It was signed by [[Germany]], [[France]] and the [[United States]] on August 27, 1928, and by most other nations soon after. Sponsored by France and the U.S., the Pact renounces the use of war and calls for the peaceful settlement of disputes. Similar provisions were incorporated into the [[Charter of the United Nations]] and other treaties and it became a stepping-stone to a more activist American policy.<ref>{{Cite journal | last1 = Josephson | first1 = H. | title = Outlawing War:Internationalism and the Pact of Paris | doi = 10.1111/j.1467-7709.1979.tb00323.x | journal = Diplomatic History | volume = 3 | issue = 4 | pages = 377–390 | year = 1979 | pmid =  | pmc = }}</ref>  It is named after its authors, [[United States Secretary of State]] [[Frank B. Kellogg]] and [[French foreign minister]] [[Aristide Briand]].
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==Official narrative==
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It failed.<ref>https://www.unwelcomeguests.net/750</ref>
  
 
==Signatories and adherents==
 
==Signatories and adherents==
 
[[File:Kellogg Briand Pact countries.png|right|thumb|Dark green: original signatories <br> Green: subsequent adherents<br />Light blue: territories of parties <br> Dark blue: [[League of Nations mandate]]s administered by parties]]
 
[[File:Kellogg Briand Pact countries.png|right|thumb|Dark green: original signatories <br> Green: subsequent adherents<br />Light blue: territories of parties <br> Dark blue: [[League of Nations mandate]]s administered by parties]]
 
After negotiations, the pact was signed in [[Paris]] at the [[Minister of Foreign Affairs (France)|French Foreign Ministry]] by the representatives from [[Australia]], [[Belgium]], [[Canada]], [[Czechoslovak Republic (1918–1938)|Czechoslovakia]], France, Germany, [[British India]], the [[Irish Free State]], [[Italy]], [[Japan]], [[New Zealand]], [[Second Polish Republic|Poland]], [[Union of South Africa|South Africa]], the [[United Kingdom]]<ref>{{citation | url = http://www.whatdotheyknow.com/request/31317/response/93990/attach/html/3/MOP%205312%2010%20BOvens%20Kellogg%20Briand.doc.html | title = Kellogg–Briand | publisher = What do they know}}.</ref> and the United States. It was provided that it would come into effect on July 24, 1929.  By that date, the following nations had deposited instruments of definitive adherence to the pact: [[Kingdom of Afghanistan|Afghanistan]], [[Albanian Republic|Albania]], [[Austria]], [[Kingdom of Bulgaria|Bulgaria]], [[Republic of China|China]], [[Cuba]], [[Denmark]], [[Dominican Republic]], [[Kingdom of Egypt|Egypt]], [[Estonia]], [[Ethiopian Empire|Ethiopia]], [[Finland]], [[Guatemala]], [[Kingdom of Hungary|Hungary]], [[Kingdom of Iceland|Iceland]], [[Latvia]], [[Liberia]], [[Lithuania]], the [[Netherlands]], [[Nicaragua]], [[Norway]], [[Panama]], [[Peru]], [[Ditadura Nacional|Portugal]], [[Kingdom of Romania|Romania]], the [[Soviet Union]], the [[Kingdom of Yugoslavia|Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes]], [[Thailand|Siam]], [[Spain under the Restoration|Spain]], [[Sweden]], and [[Turkey]].  Eight further states joined after that date ([[Persia]], [[Second Hellenic Republic|Greece]], [[Honduras]], [[Chile]], [[Luxembourg]], [[Free City of Danzig|Danzig]], [[Costa Rica]] and [[Venezuela]].<ref>{{citation | url = http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/imt/kbpact.htm | title = Kellogg-Briand Pact 1928 | publisher = [[Yale University]]}}.</ref>) for a total of 62 signatories. In 1971, [[Barbados]] declared its succession to the treaty.<ref>[http://treaties.un.org/Pages/showDetails.aspx?objid=0800000280168041]</ref>
 
After negotiations, the pact was signed in [[Paris]] at the [[Minister of Foreign Affairs (France)|French Foreign Ministry]] by the representatives from [[Australia]], [[Belgium]], [[Canada]], [[Czechoslovak Republic (1918–1938)|Czechoslovakia]], France, Germany, [[British India]], the [[Irish Free State]], [[Italy]], [[Japan]], [[New Zealand]], [[Second Polish Republic|Poland]], [[Union of South Africa|South Africa]], the [[United Kingdom]]<ref>{{citation | url = http://www.whatdotheyknow.com/request/31317/response/93990/attach/html/3/MOP%205312%2010%20BOvens%20Kellogg%20Briand.doc.html | title = Kellogg–Briand | publisher = What do they know}}.</ref> and the United States. It was provided that it would come into effect on July 24, 1929.  By that date, the following nations had deposited instruments of definitive adherence to the pact: [[Kingdom of Afghanistan|Afghanistan]], [[Albanian Republic|Albania]], [[Austria]], [[Kingdom of Bulgaria|Bulgaria]], [[Republic of China|China]], [[Cuba]], [[Denmark]], [[Dominican Republic]], [[Kingdom of Egypt|Egypt]], [[Estonia]], [[Ethiopian Empire|Ethiopia]], [[Finland]], [[Guatemala]], [[Kingdom of Hungary|Hungary]], [[Kingdom of Iceland|Iceland]], [[Latvia]], [[Liberia]], [[Lithuania]], the [[Netherlands]], [[Nicaragua]], [[Norway]], [[Panama]], [[Peru]], [[Ditadura Nacional|Portugal]], [[Kingdom of Romania|Romania]], the [[Soviet Union]], the [[Kingdom of Yugoslavia|Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes]], [[Thailand|Siam]], [[Spain under the Restoration|Spain]], [[Sweden]], and [[Turkey]].  Eight further states joined after that date ([[Persia]], [[Second Hellenic Republic|Greece]], [[Honduras]], [[Chile]], [[Luxembourg]], [[Free City of Danzig|Danzig]], [[Costa Rica]] and [[Venezuela]].<ref>{{citation | url = http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/imt/kbpact.htm | title = Kellogg-Briand Pact 1928 | publisher = [[Yale University]]}}.</ref>) for a total of 62 signatories. In 1971, [[Barbados]] declared its succession to the treaty.<ref>[http://treaties.un.org/Pages/showDetails.aspx?objid=0800000280168041]</ref>
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{{SMWDocs}}
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==References==
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{{Reflist}}

Revision as of 21:54, 20 October 2019

Publication.png Kellogg–Briand Pact Rdf-icon.png
Typetreaty
Publication dateAugust 27, 1928
Author(s)Unknown
Subjectswar
A treaty to make all wars illegal.

The Kellogg–Briand Pact (or Pact of Paris, officially General Treaty for Renunciation of War as an Instrument of National Policy[1]) is a 1928 international agreement in which signatory states promised not to use war to resolve "disputes or conflicts of whatever nature or of whatever origin they may be, which may arise among them."[2] Parties failing to abide by this promise "should be denied of the benefits furnished by this treaty." It was signed by Germany, France and the United States on August 27, 1928, and by most other nations soon after. Sponsored by France and the U.S., the Pact renounces the use of war and calls for the peaceful settlement of disputes. Similar provisions were incorporated into the Charter of the United Nations and other treaties and it became a stepping-stone to a more activist American policy.[3] It is named after its authors, United States Secretary of State Frank B. Kellogg and French foreign minister Aristide Briand.

Official narrative

It failed.[4]

Signatories and adherents

Dark green: original signatories
Green: subsequent adherents
Light blue: territories of parties
Dark blue: League of Nations mandates administered by parties

After negotiations, the pact was signed in Paris at the French Foreign Ministry by the representatives from Australia, Belgium, Canada, Czechoslovakia, France, Germany, British India, the Irish Free State, Italy, Japan, New Zealand, Poland, South Africa, the United Kingdom[5] and the United States. It was provided that it would come into effect on July 24, 1929. By that date, the following nations had deposited instruments of definitive adherence to the pact: Afghanistan, Albania, Austria, Bulgaria, China, Cuba, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Egypt, Estonia, Ethiopia, Finland, Guatemala, Hungary, Iceland, Latvia, Liberia, Lithuania, the Netherlands, Nicaragua, Norway, Panama, Peru, Portugal, Romania, the Soviet Union, the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes, Siam, Spain, Sweden, and Turkey. Eight further states joined after that date (Persia, Greece, Honduras, Chile, Luxembourg, Danzig, Costa Rica and Venezuela.[6]) for a total of 62 signatories. In 1971, Barbados declared its succession to the treaty.[7]


References

  1. See Certified true copy of the text of the treaty in League of Nations, Treaty Series, vol. 94, p. 57 (No. 2137)
  2. Kellogg-Briand Pact 1928, Yale UniversityPage Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css must have content model "Sanitized CSS" for TemplateStyles (current model is "plain text")..
  3. Josephson, H. (1979). "Outlawing War:Internationalism and the Pact of Paris". Diplomatic History. 3 (4): 377–390. doi:10.1111/j.1467-7709.1979.tb00323.x.Page Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css must have content model "Sanitized CSS" for TemplateStyles (current model is "plain text").
  4. https://www.unwelcomeguests.net/750
  5. Kellogg–Briand, What do they knowPage Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css must have content model "Sanitized CSS" for TemplateStyles (current model is "plain text")..
  6. Kellogg-Briand Pact 1928, Yale UniversityPage Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css must have content model "Sanitized CSS" for TemplateStyles (current model is "plain text")..
  7. [1]