| "Witch" |
|An enemy image used in the Middle Ages that was acted as a cover for expropriation of property, a forerunner of the modern day "terrorist"|
"Witches" were the subject intense persecution in medieval Europe. Mostly but not exclusively female, they were believed to be a supernatural and malign influence on society. Complex systems of beliefs about witchcraft were developed, with emphasises on the need for authorities to defend people against ("She is in league with the devil, bring the bishop here to exercise the sprit from her... " etc.)
"Islamophobia" and the "war on terror" is seen by some as a parallel to the witch-hunts of medieval Europe. It was termed a "Crimen Exceptum", i.e. "an exceptional crime which required the use of torture to extract a confession".