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Decade.png 1960s: )    Year.png 1961 Rdf-entity.pngRdf-icon.png
Eisenhower in the Oval Office.jpg
Outgoing US President Eisenhower delivered a fateful warning to the US public that "we must guard against the acquisition of unwarranted influence, whether sought or unsought, by the military–industrial complex."

1961 began with a warning by outgoing US President General Eisenhower about the danger of the military–industrial complex gaining power over the US democratic process. The assassination of his successor, John F. Kennedy, less than 3 years later, was to dramatically illustrate how prescient were Eisenhower's words, which are at least as relevant today as when he spoke them back in January 1961.

Eisenhower's warning

Military-industrial-congressional complex.png

Outgoing US President General Eisenhower well understood how the desire of Wall Street for profits-at-all-costs represented a threat to the democratic system. On January 17, 1961, his final televised Address to the Nation addressed the rise of the what he famously referred to as "the military–industrial complex". It went more of less unheeded by the commercially-controlled media.[citation needed] The Defense Intelligence Agency was formed in 1961[Why?], as was Operation 40's Interpen group, intended for assassination Fidel Castro, but which whch played some part in the 1963 assassination of John F. Kennedy.

Bay of Pigs Invasion

Full article: Bay of Pigs Invasion
Bay of Pigs Invasion.jpg

In May 1961, the Bay of Pigs Invasion proved a military disaster for the CIA, due to lack of air cover. In fact, this may not have been accidental. Historians have argued that failure was the planned result, since many of those involved were killed and JFK was blamed for lack of support for the venture. Naturally this angered the Cuban expat community within the CIA. These made up the majority of Operation 40, which was exploited by the deep politicians who organised the JFK assassination.

Arms Race

The Tsar Bomba mushroom cloud seen from a distance of 161 km (100 miles). The crown of the cloud is 56 km (35 miles) high at the time of the picture.

In 1961, the Soviet Union tested a 57 Megaton bomb - equal to 1400 times the bomb dropped on Hiroshima.

Assassination of Patrice Lumumba

Full article: Patrice Lumumba/Murder

A CIA-backed coup in the Congo removed Patrice Lumumba from power. Their expertise in assassinations, gathered abroad, was to be used in USA throughout the [1960s]] so dramatically as to lead to the House Select Committee on Assassinations.

Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs

Full article: Stub class article Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs

In 1961, the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs made a number of drugs effectively illegal worldwide, including cocaine. Drafting of the treaty began in 1948.


Related Quotation

Interpen“Interpen (Intercontinental Penetration Force) was established in 1961 by Gerry P. Hemming. Other members included Loran Hall, Roy Hargraves, William Seymour, Lawrence Howard, Steve Wilson, Howard K. Davis, Edwin Collins, James Arthur Lewis, Dennis Harber, Bill Dempsey, Dick Whatley, Ramigo Arce, Ronald Augustinovich, Joe Garman, Edmund Kolby, Ralph Schlafter, Manuel Aguilar and Oscar Del Pinto.

A recently declassified document says that in 1962, Robert Emmett Johnson was a member of Interpen. Later that year Johnson invited Robert K. Brown (USAR/CounterIntelligence Corps) to a meeting in Miami. Brown was the publisher of Alberto Bayo's 100 Questions for a Guerrilla. This book included an article written by Ulius Amoss called Leaderless Resistance which "referred to the proper strategy for conducting resistance operations against Castro and inside/outside of Cuba". The document also goes onto say: "Also included were numerous fotos of the G/W instructor cadre of InterPen which were taken by Brown at the Everglades training camp."

Interpen was also involved in training members of the anti-Castro groups funded by people like Roland Masferrer, Carlos Prio and Santos Trafficante. When the government began to crack down on raids from Florida in 1962, Interpen set up a new training camp in New Orleans. The group carried out a series of raids on Cuba in an attempt to undermine the government of Fidel Castro. These stories were reported by the photo-journalist, Tom Dunkin, for Life Magazine.

Roy Hargraves working closely with Felipe Vidal Santiago, carried out a series of raids on Cuba in the 1960s (23 in 1962). This involved a plan to create a war by simulating an attack on Guantanamo Naval Base. In 1963 Hargraves led a team of exiles in a successful raid on Cuba. After capturing two Cuban fishing boats Hargraves took them to the Bahamas. Some members such as William Seymour and Edwin Collins, worked with Bernardo De Torres on non-Interpen operations in 1963.
Declassified FBI files show that the agency had an informer within Interpen. His code name was MM T-1. In one document dated 16th June, 1961, it said that MM T-1 had “been connected with Cuban revolutionary activities for the past three years”. One document dated 12th May, 1961, claims that Allen Lushane of Miami “had made a trip to Texas to recruit Americans for some future military action against the Government of Cuba”. The document adds that the “first training camp was established by Gerald Patrick Hemming with Dick Watley and Ed Colby running the camp.” In an interview that he gave to John M. Newman on 6th January, 1995, Hemming claims that the FBI informer was Steve Wilson.

Some researchers believe that a combination of Interpen members, CIA agents and anti-Castro Cubans were involved in the assassination of John F. Kennedy. This included James Arthur Lewis, Roy Hargraves, Edwin Collins, Steve Wilson, Gerry P. Hemming, David Morales, Herminio Diaz Garcia, Tony Cuesta, Eugenio Martinez, Virgilio Gonzalez, Felipe Vidal Santiago, Robert Emmett Johnson, Carl E. Jenkins, Chi Chi Quintero and William Robertson.<a href="#cite_note-1">[1]</a>
John Simkin20 May 2015



Operation Bootstrap19301970Between 1930 and 1970, around one third of all women in the US territory of Puerto Rico were sterilized
Tuskegee syphilis experiment19321972A murderous experiment which looked at the progression of syphilis. Subjects were told that they were being treated, while in fact treatment was denied them. Exposed after 40 years by a whistleblower who went to the press.
Operation Paperclip8 May 19451990A transfer of top German scientists to USA.
Cold War194726 September 1991The official narrative had 2 diametrically opposed systems locked in combat with one another since soon after WW2. Each of the "superpowers" and its team of allies needed to outdo each other by creating ever more and deadlier weapons, creating a kind of perpetual war for perpetual peace, with the warring parties engaging mainly in covert/proxy wars. Deep state interests blossomed in the climate of fear and paranoia.
Operation Demagnetize19481980"The institutional hardening of Gladio", an expansion of Gladio in the late 1940s, early 1950s.
Project AERODYNAMIC19491970Program to provide funding and equipment for anti-Soviet resistance groups in Ukraine
Lockheed/Bribery scandals19501976A series of bribes made by officials of the U.S. aerospace company Lockheed from the late 1950s to the 1970s in the process of negotiating the sale of aircraft.
Project Ulysses19501968Mossad covert operation to infiltrate and subvert the Palestinian political leadership
Operation Midnight Climax19531966A "free-wheeling illicit criminal" CIA project which filmed the effects of prostitutes dosing up victims with drugs such as LSD.
Project MKUltra13 April 19531973An illegal mind control research programme, where psychoactive drugs (especially LSD) and other chemicals, electroshocks, hypnosis, sensory deprivation, isolation, verbal and sexual abuse, in addition to other forms of torture were used to gain control of individuals.
Algerian War1 November 195419 March 1962The Algerian War of Independence
COINTELPRO19561971Series of covert and illegal projects aimed at subversion of 1960s left wing movements
Vietnam WarDecember 195630 April 1975The Vietnam War was a proxy war lead by US that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from December 1956 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975. Millions of people were killed, mostly Vietnamese. JFK was assassinated soon after declaring his intent to withdraw US troops. The war helped the CIA to refine its methods of illegal drug trafficking, torture and the like.
Operation Snow White19601979Religious cult breaks into 100s of international government buildings to remove their own names, is not banned.
Congolese Operation5 July 196025 November 1965
Patrice Lumumba/Assassination17 January 196117 January 1961A US Deep state backed assassination, ordered by Allen Dulles, which was followed by decades of bloody violence.
JFK/Presidency20 January 196122 November 1963The JFK administration
Bilderberg/196121 April 196123 April 1961The 10th Bilderberg, the first in Canada and the 2nd outside Europe.
Bay of Pigs Invasion20 May 196120 May 1961A deliberately botched attempt to invade Cuba by the CIA, devised as a way to entrap JFK into full scale military action against Cuba. Unsuccessful, since JFK however refused to be manipulated.
Dag Hammarskjöld/Premature death18 September 196118 September 1961


New Groups

Hudson InstituteHudson Institute logo.png
Vaduz InstituteGroup.pngA tight-knit circle of conservative politicians, managers and military strategists who continue to meet in Vaduz, Liechtenstein, four times a year.
Atlantic CouncilAtlantic Council logo.pngThink tankKey part of the modern military-industrial congressional complex.
James Cook UniversityJames Cook University.pngPublicAustralian university invested in the climate change agenda, and firing academics if they disagree.
Alpha 66Alpha 66.png"Terrorist"
Atlantic Council/Corporate MembersGroup.pngCorporate Members of the Atlantic Council per 2020
InterdocGroup.pngAn "information and documentation centre" which specialised in research on the European left. Spooky anti-communist group.
Atlantic InstituteGroup.pngTransatlanticTransatlantic think tank with similar goals to the Trilateral Commission, operational 1961-1988.
Florida Atlantic UniversityFlorida Atlantic University seal.pngPublicDismissed Professor James F. Tracy after he was criticised by commercially-controlled media
American Institute for Free Labor DevelopmentGroup.png
University of Dar es SalaamUniversity of Dar es Salaam Logo.pngPublicMain university in Tanzania
US/Senate/Special Committee on AgingGroup.pngStudies issues related to older Americans, particularly Medicare and Social Security
Amnesty InternationalAmnesty International.jpgNGO"Effectively, Amnesty International and AIUSA function as tools for the imperialist, colonial and genocidal policies of the United States, Britain, and Israel." Revolving leadership door with US government.
Organisation armée secrèteOas logo public.svgFrench terrorist organzation with Gladio ties
OECDOECD logo new.svgIGODedicate itself to help "democracy" and a "good world economy". Originally started to fund Western Europe in the cold war.
Korean Central Intelligence AgencyGroup.pngSo dependent on the CIA they didn't bother to change the name.
The Britain-Russia Centre and the British East-West CentreGroup.png
New Democratic Party (Canada)Group.png
DIAUS Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) seal.pngIntelligence agency


Groups that were Wound Up

Counterintelligence CorpsCounter Intelligence Corps logo.pngU.S. intelligence service active from 1941 to 1961. It became noticeable for recruiting and protecting former German and other Axis operatives; including by operating "ratlines" to South America. Conducted large-scale surveillance in the United States itself.
OEECGroup.pngIGOThe Organisation for European Economic Co-operation
Operations Coordinating BoardGroup.pngAn informal and secretive committee of the US National Security Council in the 1950s.




TitleBornDiedPlace of deathCause of deathSummaryDescription
Ulius Amoss18951961Spook
Horace Rowan Gaither19091961CancerBanker
Deep state functionary
US deep state functionary who headed up the Ford Foundation 1953-56
E. G. Focke19141961In attendance at the first Bilderberg and two further Bilderbergs
Hans Hirschfeld18991961Diplomat
Dutch economist/diplomat. Rapporteur in the attendance list of the first Bilderberg.
Patrice Lumumba2 July 192517 January 1961Élisabethville
PoliticianThe first democratically elected Prime Minister of the Republic of the Congo, abducted, tortured and murdered. Foreign intelligence service involvement is strongly suspected.
Thomas Anthony Dooley III17 January 192718 January 1961CancerSpook
Doctor who was CIA operative. Collected intelligence under medical cover. After his death, it was discovered numerous descriptions of atrocities by the Viet Minh in his hugely influential book Deliver Us From Evil had been fabricated.
Oswald Rayner29 November 18886 March 1961United Kingdom
Vicente Leon LeonApril 1961Died during the failed Bay Of Pigs invasion.
Rafael Trujillo24 October 189130 May 1961Dominican Republic
Santo Domingo
Ciudad Trujillo
SoldierPresident of the Dominican Republic - assassinated with weapons supplied by the CIA
Clinton Golden16 November 188812 June 1961Pennsylvania
Trade unionist
Anti-communist labor union leader. Double Bilderberger
Ernest Hemingway21 July 18992 July 1961United States
GunshotAmerican author hounded by the FBI
Whittaker Chambers1 April 19019 July 1961Maryland
Joseph Ball1 September 188510 July 1961Spook
Deep state operative
British spook who forged the Zinoviev Letter to bring down the first British Labour Party government in 1924. "Ball also had a keen understanding of the dark arts of political manipulation, a readiness to use all means at his disposal and an ability to keep himself out of the limelight... he knew how to lie and how to keep a secret."
Hanns Seidel12 October 19015 August 1961Germany
David Petrie9 September 18797 August 1961Devon
Police officer
Wartime head of MI6 after just 5 years in the organisation.
Walter Bedell Smith5 October 18959 August 1961Washington DCSpook
Preston Delano2 April 188631 August 1961Washington DCBanker
Investment counselor
Comptroller of the Currency 1938-53, to "charter, regulate, and supervise all national banks".
David Bowes-Lyon2 May 190213 September 1961SpookFather-in-law of queen Elizabeth 2. Member of the propaganda unit Political Warfare Executive during World War 2.
Fatin Rüştü Zorlu20 April 191016 September 1961Turkey
Turkish diplomat and politician executed after the 1960 Turkish coup d'état, along with two other politicians.
Adnan Menderes189917 September 1961Turkey
PoliticianTurkish PM for 10 years. In this role he attended 2 Bilderbergs in the 1950s
Dag Hammarskjöld29 July 190518 September 1961Ndola
Rhodesia and Nyasaland
The 2nd Secretary-General of the United Nations who died in highly suspicious circumstances while trying to make peace in the Congo.
Oreste Pinto9 October 188918 September 1961London
United Kingdom
Charles E. Wilson18 July 189026 September 1961US
Rubén López Sabariego11 June 191730 September 1961Guantanamo ProvinceBus driverCuban bus driver tortured and killed at US naval base Guantanamo
Louis Rwagasore10 January 193213 October 1961ShootingPolitician"the Burundian Lumumba", assassinated by the Belgians.
Harry Crookshank27 May 189317 October 1961London
Luigi Einaudi24 March 187430 October 1961Italy
Central banker
President of Italy for 7 years after WW2
Sam Rayburn6 January 188216 November 1961United States
Josefa Johnson191225 December 1961Cerebral hemorrhageLyndon Johnson/Body countSister of Lyndon B. Johnson, premature death.



TitleBornPlace of birthDiedSummaryDescription
Victoria Nuland1961United States
High ranking member of the federal government. Served in the administrations of Barack Obama and Joe Biden.
Sergei Glazyev1 January 1961Ukraine
PoliticianRussian politician, economist and full member of Russian Academy of Science since 2008
Adam LeBor1961London
An author with an interest in history and the BIS
Charles Shoebridge1961Author
Police officer
"Terror expert"
Michael Ratney1961DiplomatUS envoy on Syria kicked out for not being friendly to Israel.
Rohan Gunaratna1961Academic
"Terror expert"
Alexis Papahelas1961Greece
Greek journalist and editor who has visited 5 Bilderberg meetings.
Scott Malcomson1961US
Bilderberger CFR "political-risk and communications consultant"
Philip Lowe1961Australia
New South Wales
Central banker
Governor of the Reserve Bank of Australia
Michael O'Hanlon1961Deep state operativeSuspected US deep state operative who co-authored Protecting the American Homeland - A Preliminary Analysis for Brookings
George Gao1961VirologistChinese virologist and immunologist who participated in the notorious Event 201 and the 2021 Monkeypox Tabletop Exercise
Kiron Skinner1961Academic
Deep state functionary
Former Director of Policy Planning
Shen Dingli1961AcademicProfessor of international relations at Fudan University. Post-docorate from Princeton University
Fergus Walsh1961UKPropagandistBBC News Medical Editor despite having no medical qualifications. Also has huge conflict of interest, as wife is Big Pharma manager.
Aziz Akhannouch1961MoroccoPolitician
New Moroccan Prime Minister
Carlos Del Toro1961Cuba
BusinesspersonUnited States Secretary of the Navy under Joe Biden
Harry Ferguson1961Whistleblower
A spook who admits that the UK tortured IRA members in Northern Ireland.
Julie Brown1961
Robert Hersov1961Banker
Billionaire banker in Epstein's black book. His father attended Le Cercle
Celeste Wallander1961Spook
Deep state operative
US deep state operative
Ashley Tellis1961India
AcademicCFR Bilderberg academic
Livia Leu1961Switzerland
Civil servant
Head of the Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs
Eva Andersson-Dubin1961Doctor
Former Miss Sweden who dated Jeffrey Epstein for 11 years, then married hedge fund billionaire Glenn Dubin. Mentioned in Epstein's Black book, flew the Lolita Express.
Sean Joyce1961Massachusetts
Police officerDeputy Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation 2011-2013
Sharyl Attkisson1961Journalist
Hal Harvey1961US
Deep state actor
Cut-out for Rockefeller family and Bill Gates money to capture state policies. Described as "the most powerful Green politician in the world."
Martin Brudermüller1961StuttgartBusinesspersonGerman Bilderberger businessman, WEF AGM habit, CEO of BASF since 2018. Predicted EU ban on Russian gas imports would destroy the German economy.
Koenraad Debackere1961Belgium
AcademicBelgian academic interested in big data who went to his first Bilderberg in 2023
Nick Cohen1961JournalistEstablishment journalist who spoke at Tackling Tools of Malign Influence, an Integrity Initiative sponsored conference
Pamella Bordes1961Prostitute
Miko Peled1961Israel
Israeli-American peace activist and author. Proponent of Israeli-Palestine single-state.
Olivier Combe1961France
Police officer
C. J. Hopkins1961Playwright
American political satirist based in Berlin. A prominent Covid dissident, he was persecuted by the German judicial system on trumped-up charges.
John Barnett1961United States
South Carolina
Employee and whistleblower on Boeing found death, ruled a suicide.
Tom-Jan Meeus1961JournalistDutch journalist for NRC Handelsblad who attended Bilderberg/2024.
Kadri Gürsel1961Turkey
Marilyn Gladu1961CanadaPoliticianConservative MP in Canada; member of the shadow cabinet. Advocate of hydroxychloroquine.
Vladimir Potanin3 January 1961Russia
Russian businessman. The 10th richest person in the world.
Tim Evans10 January 1961Deep state operativeClose to a number of Foundations, World Bank, WHO. Participated in at least two pandemic planning exercises in 2019: Event 201 and A Spreading Plague
Janey Godley20 January 1961ScotlandPropagandist
Scottish Nationalist, paid to promote face masks and lockdowns in a series of ad campaigns.
Dionel M. Aviles23 January 1961Texas
MarinerUnited States Under Secretary of the Navy 2004-2009.
Mark Urban26 January 1961London
United Kingdom
Frank Baker27 January 1961DiplomatUK diplomat and ambassador
Strive Masiyiwa29 January 1961Spook
Spooky billionaire who as African Union Special Envoy for Covid-19 response pushed COVID jabs
Nuno Morais Sarmento31 January 1961Portugal
Attended the 2005 Bilderberg meeting as vice-president of the (liberal-conservative) Social Democratic Party.
Fatou Bensouda31 January 1961Diplomat
Salil Shetty3 February 1961
George Stephanopoulos10 February 1961United States
Fall River
Deep politician
US/President/Senior Advisor, Bilderberg 1996 and 1997
David Graeber12 February 19612 September 2020Activist
COVID-19/Premature death
Anarchist anthropologist who played a leading role in the Occupy movement. Died suddenly in 2020.
Alison Saunders14 February 1961Scotland
LawyerDespite the collapse of an unprecedented number of abuse cases during her tenure as Director of Public Prosecutions, she still insisted she had done a good job. Let Greville Janner go.
... further results
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